Chat with us, powered by LiveChat You are to identify a variety of credible resources related to your field You will need to provide a list of the following: 3 refereed journals in your field, 3 professional/trade jo | Wridemy

You are to identify a variety of credible resources related to your field You will need to provide a list of the following: 3 refereed journals in your field, 3 professional/trade jo

You are to identify a variety of credible resources related to your field You will need to provide a list of the following: 3 refereed journals in your field, 3 professional/trade jo

 

Assignment Content

  1. Treasure Hunt (100 points):

    You are to identify a variety of credible resources related to your field. (ELEMENTARY EDUCATION)

    You will need to provide a list of the following:
    3 refereed journals in your field,
    3 professional/trade journals,
    3 popular publications (i.e., blogs, magazines, e-zines, etc.),
    3 seminal works for your field,
    and 3 noted authors of contemporary scholarship.

Practically Speaking by J. Dan Rothwell

© 2018 2

Chapter 7 Introductions and Conclusions

• Five Objectives for Competent Introductions

• Three Objectives for Competent Conclusions

© 2018 3

Chapter 7 Learning Objectives

• 7.1 Properly select an engaging opener suitable for a given speech and audience.

• 7.2 Construct a clear purpose statement for a given speech introduction.

• 7.3 Effectively establish topic significance for a given speech introduction.

• 7.4 Effectively establish credibility for a given speech introduction. • 7.5 Accurately formulate a preview of main points for a given speech

introduction.

• 7.6 Accurately summarize main points for a given speech conclusion. • 7.7 Construct a memorable conclusion for a given speech.

© 2018 4

5 Objectives for a Competent Introduction

1. Gain Attention

2. Give a Clear Purpose Statement

3. Establish Significance of a Topic

4. Establish Speaker Credibility

5. Preview Main Points

© 2018 5

1. Gain Attention: Focusing Your Listeners

• Begin with a clever quotation

• Startle your audience with a surprise opener

• Use questions to engage your listeners

– Rhetorical questions vs. Direct questions

• Tell a relevant story

• Begin with a simple visual aid

• Acknowledge introductory remarks

© 2018 6

Which of the following is a potentially effective Attention Strategy for an

introduction?

1. Bernard Berenson once said, “Consistency requires you to be as ignorant today as you were a year ago.”

2. “Today I want to talk about calculus.”

3. “Have you ever wondered why our college doesn’t have a debate team?”

© 2018 7

2. Make a Clear Purpose Statement: Providing Intent

What is the difference between your general purpose and your specific purpose statement?

How do these differ from the theme of your speech?

© 2018 8

Writing Appropriate and Effective Specific Purpose Statements

• Is it concise and precise?

• Is it phrased as a declarative statement?

• Is it free of colorful language?

• Is it more than simply a topic?

• Is it practical?

© 2018 9

Which is a Potentially Effective Purpose Statement?

1. “Why is parking such a train wreck on this campus?”

2. “I hope to inform you about the Hunger Games trilogy.”

3. “I want to persuade you to support a bicycle rental program on campus.”

4. “Let me teach you basic sign language.”

© 2018 10

3. Establish Topic Significance: Making Your Listeners Care

• Don’t choose trivial or overly technical topics

• Establish a clear basis for why listeners should

care about the problem, information, or

demonstration central to your purpose

• Tell listeners how your topic affects them

© 2018 11

Which Statement Establishes Significance Effectively?

Purpose Statement: To inform you about the serious problem of televisions falling onto children.

1. “According to an article by Lindsey Tanner in the July 22, 2013 issue of San Jose Mercury News: ‘Falling televisions sent nearly 200,000 U. S. children to the emergency room over 20 years and the injury rate has climbed substantially.’”

2. “Dr. Gary Smith, lead author of a 2013 study and a pediatric emergency specialist in Columbus, Ohio notes: ‘This problem (of falling television injuries) is a problem that is increasing at an alarming rate.”

3. “The injury rate from televisions falling onto small children has nearly doubled since 1990.”

© 2018 12

4. Establish Your Credibility: Why Listeners Should Believe You

• Do not give disclaimers that diminish credibility

• Elements of credibility:

– Competence

– Trustworthiness

– Dynamism

– Composure

• Refer to substantial, relevant research

© 2018 13

Which Statement Establishes Credibility Effectively?

Purpose Statement: To inform you about the serious problem of televisions falling onto children.

1. “I’ve done a lot of research on this topic.”

2. “My five-year-old brother pulled a 50-inch television off its stand onto his head. He had to be taken to the emergency room of our local hospital to be treated for severe lacerations and a concussion. He was lucky it wasn’t worse.”

3. “Recent studies have shown how deadly serious this problem can be.”

© 2018 14

5. Preview the Main Points: The Coming Attractions

• A speech normally has 2-4 main points

• Previews should flow directly from the purpose

statement

• Using signposts (e.g. first, second, next, last)

helps orient the listener

© 2018 15

Which Statement Previews Main Points Effectively?

Purpose Statement: To inform you about the serious problem of televisions falling onto children.

1. “I’ll be covering three main points in my speech.”

2. “I want to present several important points during this speech so you will appreciate the seriousness of this problem.”

3. “I have three main points: First, falling televisions pose a serious threat to young children, second, there are several

causes, and finally, I will offer some possible solutions.”

© 2018 16

3 Objectives for a Competent Conclusion

1. Summarize Main Points

2. Refer to the Introduction

3. Make a Memorable Finish

© 2018 17

1. Summarize the Main Points: Connecting the Dots

• Review your main points

• If your speech is lengthy or complex, slightly expand your summary from your preview

• Important to remind audience of the most important points from your speech

© 2018 18

Which Is an Effective Summary for a Speech Conclusion?

1. “So, if you want to save money on a laptop, follow my guidelines.”

2. “In review, don’t buy a textbook from an online site without checking its legitimacy first.”

3. “Briefly, I demonstrated the dangers of unregulated alternative medicines, looked at the inability under current laws to regulate these medicines, and finally offered some legal remedies.”

© 2018 19

2. Refer to the Introduction: Bookending Your Speech

• Refer back to a moment from your introduction

– If you used a dramatic story, loop back to it

• Helps to provide closure

• Not always possible to bookend, but it can be a

very strong finish to your speech

© 2018 20

Which Is an Effective Reference to the Speech’s Introduction?

1. “Julia Adams was a good girl from a strong Catholic family who fell in with the wrong crowd and died from drug abuse. Heed the warning signs I’ve described to avert another catastrophe that happened to Julia and her loving family.”

2. “I told the story of Marcus Williamson. Don’t repeat his ordeal.”

3. “Never do what Esperanza Jimenez did.”

© 2018 21

3. Make a Memorable Finish: Sizzle Don’t Fizzle

• Use similar strategies as your attention gainer

– A strong quote, powerful rhetorical question,

intense statement, a powerful narrative, a

humorous statement

• Do not end abruptly, apologize for running

short on time, or ramble

© 2018 22

Which Conclusion Sizzles (And Doesn’t Fizzle)?

1. “I’m sorry I went overtime but I felt my point was too important to just stop.”

2. “That’s about all I have to say. I hope you enjoyed it.”

3. “It may have been the best of times when government was viewed as the solution to many of our most serious problems. It is now the worst of times, however, now that government is viewed by many as the mortal enemy to be destroyed.”

© 2018 23

Review of Chapter 7 Learning Objectives

• 7.1 Properly select an engaging opener suitable for a given speech and audience.

• 7.2 Construct a clear purpose statement for a given speech introduction.

• 7.3 Effectively establish topic significance for a given speech introduction.

• 7.4 Effectively establish credibility for a given speech introduction. • 7.5 Accurately formulate a preview of main points for a given speech

introduction.

• 7.6 Accurately summarize main points for a given speech conclusion. • 7.7 Construct a memorable conclusion for a given speech.

  • Practically Speaking
  • Chapter 7 Introductions and Conclusions
  • Chapter 7 Learning Objectives
  • 5 Objectives for a Competent Introduction
  • 1. Gain Attention: Focusing Your Listeners
  • Slide 6
  • 2. Make a Clear Purpose Statement: Providing Intent
  • Writing Appropriate and Effective Specific Purpose Statements
  • Which is a Potentially Effective Purpose Statement?
  • 3. Establish Topic Significance: Making Your Listeners Care
  • Which Statement Establishes Significance Effectively?
  • Slide 12
  • Which Statement Establishes Credibility Effectively?
  • 5. Preview the Main Points: The Coming Attractions
  • Which Statement Previews Main Points Effectively?
  • 3 Objectives for a Competent Conclusion
  • 1. Summarize the Main Points: Connecting the Dots
  • Which Is an Effective Summary for a Speech Conclusion?
  • 2. Refer to the Introduction: Bookending Your Speech
  • Which Is an Effective Reference to the Speech’s Introduction?
  • 3. Make a Memorable Finish: Sizzle Don’t Fizzle
  • Which Conclusion Sizzles (And Doesn’t Fizzle)?
  • Review of Chapter 7 Learning Objectives

,

Practically Speaking by J. Dan Rothwell

© 2018 2

Chapter 14 Informative Speaking

• Distinguishing Informative from Persuasive

Speaking

• Types of Informative Speeches

• Guidelines for Competent Informative Speaking

© 2018 3

Chapter 14 Learning Objectives

• 14.1 Distinguish key differences between informative and persuasive speaking.

• 14.2 Select an appropriate informative speech type that fits a given speaking situation.

• 14.3 Effectively use competent informative speaking guidelines to adapt content to a given audience.

• 14.4 Effectively use storytelling to adapt content to a given audience.

© 2018 4

Informative vs. Persuasive Speaking (1 of 2)

The goal of informative speaking is to teach your audience something new, interesting, and

useful.

The purpose of a persuasive speech is to convince your listeners to change their

viewpoint and behavior,

© 2018 5

Informative vs. Persuasive Speaking (2 of 2)

© 2018 6

Distinguishing Informative Speaking

• Informative speeches convey noncontroversial information by staying neutral

• There is no call to action in informative speeches

• You should not take a firm stand, present only one side, or advocate a change in behavior

• Informative speeches may act as a precursor to a subsequent persuasive speech

© 2018 7

Is This Informative or Persuasive?

“Everything Happens for a Reason” and Other Lies I’ve Loved

© 2018 8

Types of Informative Speeches

1. Reports: Facts in Brief

2. Explanations: Deeper Understanding

3. Demonstrations: Acting Out

4. Narratives: Storytelling

5. Pros and Cons: Comparisons

© 2018 9

Challenges of Demonstration Speeches

© 2018 10

Guidelines for Competent Informative Speaking

• Be informative

• Adapt to your audience

• Avoid information overload

• Tell your story well

© 2018 11

Be Informative: Tell Us What we Do Not Know

• You should provide new information to listeners

• Ensure your audience does not leave your speech saying “I didn’t learn a thing”

• Focus on information that is not widely known

© 2018 12

Adapt to Your Audience: Topic Choice and Knowledge Base

• Avoid topics that are too complex or abstract for the educational level of your audience

• To clarify difficult material, use: – Examples – Personal stories – Visual aids – Metaphors – Analogies

© 2018 13

Avoid Information Overload: Beware the Data Dump

• Separate useless information from useful information

• Know when to quit • Preparation and practice are essential • Time your speech beforehand • Ask yourself “Do they really need to know

this?”

© 2018 14

Tell Your Story Well: Narrative Tips

• Choose a story that fits your audience • Your story should fit your purpose • Your story should illustrate a key point • Keep stories concise • Practice telling the story • Do not read your narrative • Be animated, even visual when telling your story.

© 2018 15

Examples of Strong Storytelling

“My Stroke of Insight”

“The Last Lecture”

© 2018 16

Review of Chapter 14 Learning Objectives

• 14.1 Distinguish key differences between informative and persuasive speaking.

• 14.2 Select an appropriate informative speech type that fits a given speaking situation.

• 14.3 Effectively use competent informative speaking guidelines to adapt content to a given audience.

• 14.4 Effectively use storytelling to adapt content to a given audience.

  • Practically Speaking
  • Chapter 14 Informative Speaking
  • Chapter 14 Learning Objectives
  • Informative vs. Persuasive Speaking (1 of 2)
  • Informative vs. Persuasive Speaking (2 of 2)
  • Distinguishing Informative Speaking
  • Is This Informative or Persuasive?
  • Types of Informative Speeches
  • Challenges of Demonstration Speeches
  • Guidelines for Competent Informative Speaking
  • Be Informative: Tell Us What we Do Not Know
  • Adapt to Your Audience: Topic Choice and Knowledge Base
  • Avoid Information Overload: Beware the Data Dump
  • Tell Your Story Well: Narrative Tips
  • Examples of Strong Storytelling
  • Review of Chapter 14 Learning Objectives

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