Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Select one of the conceptual models or theories described in chapter 6. Formulate a research question and one?to two hypotheses that could be used empiraclly to test the utility of t | Wridemy

Select one of the conceptual models or theories described in chapter 6. Formulate a research question and one?to two hypotheses that could be used empiraclly to test the utility of t

Select one of the conceptual models or theories described in chapter 6. Formulate a research question and one?to two hypotheses that could be used empiraclly to test the utility of t

 

PLEASE ANSWER THE QUESTION AT LEAST 3 PARAGRAPH AND LESS THAN 20 % SIMILARITY

Select one of the conceptual models or theories described in chapter 6. Formulate a research question and one to two hypotheses that could be used empiraclly to test the utility of the conceptual framework or model in nursing practice. 

Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chapter 8

Planning a Nursing Study

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Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

The major methodologic challenge in designing a qualitative study is that it is reliable and valid.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

Researchers face numerous conceptual, practical, ethical, and methodologic challenges in planning a study. The major methodologic challenge is designing a study that is reliable and valid (quantitative studies) or trustworthy (qualitative studies).

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Validity refers to the accuracy and consistency of information obtained in a study.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

Reliability refers to the accuracy and consistency of information obtained in a study. Validity is a more complex concept that broadly concerns the soundness of the study’s evidence.

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Key Challenges of Doing Research

  • Conceptual
  • Financial
  • Administrative
  • Practical
  • Ethical
  • Clinical
  • Methodologic

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Major Methodologic Challenge

Designing studies that are:

  • Reliable and valid (quantitative studies)
  • Trustworthy (qualitative studies)

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Criteria for Evaluating Quantitative Research

  • Reliability

The accuracy and consistency of obtained information

Validity

The soundness of the evidence—whether findings are convincing, well-grounded

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Confirmability refers to evidence of the researcher’s objectivity.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

True

Confirmability refers to evidence of the researcher’s objectivity.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Dimensions of Trustworthiness in Qualitative Studies

  • Credibility
  • Confirmability
  • Dependability
  • Transferability
  • Authenticity

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Triangulation

  • Multiple sources
  • Draw conclusions
  • One approach to establish credibility

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Bias

An influence producing a distortion in study results

Examples of factors creating bias:

  • Lack of participants’ candor
  • Faulty methods of data collection
  • Researcher’s preconceptions
  • Faulty study design

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Research Control in Quantitative Studies

Achieved by holding constant factors (extraneous variables) that influence the dependent variable in order to better understand its relationship with the independent variable

Randomness: an important tool for achieving control over extraneous variables

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Randomness

  • Having certain features of the study established by chance rather than by design or personal preference

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Reflexivity

  • Process of reflecting critically on the self and of scrutinizing personal values that could affect data collection and interpretation

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Generalizability and Transferability

Generalizability (quantitative research): the extent to which study findings are valid for other groups not in the study

Transferability (qualitative research): the extent to which qualitative findings can be transferred to other settings

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Overview of Research Design Features

Comparisons:

Comparison among two or more groups

Comparison of one group’s status at two or more points in time

Comparison of one group’s status under different circumstances

Comparison based on relative rankings

Comparison with other studies

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Research Location

  • Site selections
  • Site visits

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Design

  • Cross-sectional: involves data collection at one point in time
  • Longitudinal: involves data collection at two or more points over an extended period

– Trend studies

– Panel studies

– Follow-up studies

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Retrospective Design versus
Prospective Design

  • Retrospective design: involves the collection of data about an outcome in the present and about possible causes or antecedents in the past
  • Prospective design: involves having information about a cause or antecedent first and then the subsequent collection of information about outcomes

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Self-Report

  • Direct questioning of people about phenomena of interest
  • Versatile
  • Powerful
  • Respondents’ deliberate or inadvertent misrepresentations

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Biophysiologic Measures

  • High-quality data
  • Objective
  • Valid
  • Cost-efficient

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Records

  • Economical source
  • Bias:
  • Selective deposit
  • Selective survival

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Pilot Study (Feasibility Study)

  • Small-scale version or trial run designed to test methods to be used in a larger, more rigorous study (the parent study)

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Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chapter 7

Ethics in Nursing Research

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

An ethical dilemma occurs when a situation in which the rights of study participants are in direct conflict with requirements for a rigorous study.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

True

An ethical dilemma is situation in which the rights of study participants are in direct conflict with requirements for a rigorous study.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Ethical Dilemma in Conducting Research

  • A situation in which the rights of study participants are in direct conflict with requirements for a rigorous study

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Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

The Nuremberg Code serves as the basis for regulations affecting research sponsored by the U.S. government.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

The Belmont Report serves as the basis for regulations affecting research sponsored by the U.S. government. The Nuremberg Code was an international effort to establish ethical standards.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Code of Ethics

  • Nuremberg Code  
  • Declaration of Helsinki  
  • Belmont Report  
  • Codes for professional disciplines (e.g., by the American Nurses Association, American Psychological Association)  

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Question

What is nonmaleficence?

Performance of some good

Protection from physical and psychological harm and exploitation

Participants right to self-determination

Freedom to control their own actions

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

B

Beneficence involves the performance of some good, and the protection of participants from physical and psychological harm and exploitation is nonmaleficence. Respect for human dignity involves participants’ right to self-determination, which means they have the freedom to control their own actions.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Justice includes the right to fair treatment and the right to privacy.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

True

Justice includes the right to fair treatment and the right to privacy.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Ethical Principles from the Belmont Report

Principle of Beneficence: Above all,
do no harm.  

Freedom from harm  

Freedom from exploitation  

Maximizing benefits to participants and society  

Maintaining an appropriate risk/benefit ratio

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Ethical Principles from the Belmont Report (cont.)

Principle of Respect for Human
Dignity

Right to self-determination (absence of coercion)  

Right to full disclosure (absence of deception or concealment)

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Ethical Principles from the Belmont Report (cont.)

Principle of Justice

Right to fair treatment  

Right to privacy (confidentiality, anonymity)  

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Informed Consent

Informed consent means that participants:

  • Have adequate information about the research  
  • Can comprehend that information  
  • Have free choice in deciding whether to participate in or withdraw from the study

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Content of Informed Consent—What Must Be Communicated?

  • Status as a study participant  
  • Study goals  
  • Type of data to be collected and procedures to be used  
  • Nature of participant’s commitment  

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Content of Informed Consent (cont.)

  • Sponsorship of the study  
  • Participant selection  
  • Potential risks and benefits 
  • Treatment alternatives

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Content of Informed Consent (cont.)

  • Confidentiality pledge  
  • Voluntary nature of participation  
  • Participant’s right to withdraw or withhold information  
  • Information on contacting researcher

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Vulnerable Subjects

  • Children  
  • Mentally or emotionally disabled people  
  • Severely ill or physically disabled people  
  • Terminally ill people  
  • Institutionalized people  
  • Pregnant women

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