Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Submit a one page description of your chosen research topic and reason for choosing it, why this topic is significant, and who will benefit from your research. Review the practices of any | Wridemy

Submit a one page description of your chosen research topic and reason for choosing it, why this topic is significant, and who will benefit from your research. Review the practices of any

Submit a one page description of your chosen research topic and reason for choosing it, why this topic is significant, and who will benefit from your research. Review the practices of any

Due: Friday, October 21, 2022, 11:59 PMDue Friday, October 21, 2022, 11:59 PM

Time remaining: 10 hours 54 mins

Comprehensive Assignment

Submit a one page description of your chosen research topic and reason for choosing it, why this topic is significant, and who will benefit from your research. Review the practices of any religious/cultural group they choose that relate to illness, suffering, death, dying, grief, mourning rituals, and burial/cremation and then write a comprehensive research-based discussion on this topic. Be sure to focus on coping with death – either a specific population or situation. 

Typed in Times New Roman 12-pt font and double spaced.  It should include at least two scholarly sources (from a peer reviewed journal, not a website or blog).  

Internet Resources

My Last Days | Meet Juli, always a door open for hope:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kM_CVxcnODA

Death and Dying Psychology

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Synthesize your research topic it

Writing shows high degree of attention to logic and reasoning of points well developed thoughts. The writing clearly leads the reader to the conclusion and stirs thought regarding the topic. Content indicates synthesis of ideas, in-depth analysis of original thought and support for the topic.

Writing is coherent and logically organized with transitions used between ideas and paragraphs to create coherence. The writing sufficiently expresses coherent ideas from original thinking supported by firm evidence. Main points well developed with quality supporting details and reflects.

Writing is coherent and logically organized, but some points are misplaced or stray from the topic. Some transitions are used inconsistently. Main ideas reflecting some critical thinking is presented without detail or development.

Writing lacks logical organization. It shows some coherence but ideas lack unity. Many or serious errors are present. Main ideas reflect little critical thinking is presented without detail, development, or ideas are vaguely presented.

Explain why you chose the topic

Writing shows high degree of attention to logic and reasoning of points well developed thoughts. The writing clearly leads the reader to the conclusion and stirs thought regarding the topic. Content indicates synthesis of ideas, in-depth analysis of original thought and support for the topic.

Writing is coherent and logically organized with transitions used between ideas and paragraphs to create coherence. The writing sufficiently expresses coherent ideas from original thinking supported by firm evidence. Main points well developed with quality supporting details and reflects.

Writing is coherent and logically organized, but some points are misplaced or stray from the topic. Some transitions are used inconsistently. Main ideas reflecting some critical thinking is presented without detail or development.

Writing lacks logical organization. It shows some coherence but ideas lack unity. Many or serious errors are present. Main ideas reflect little critical thinking is presented without detail, development, or ideas are vaguely presented.

Analyze the significance of this research

Writing shows high degree of attention to logic and reasoning of points well developed thoughts. The writing clearly leads the reader to the conclusion and stirs thought regarding the topic. Content indicates synthesis of ideas, in-depth analysis of original thought and support for the topic.

Writing is coherent and logically organized with transitions used between ideas and paragraphs to create coherence. The writing sufficiently expresses coherent ideas from original thinking supported by firm evidence. Main points well developed with quality supporting details and reflects.

Writing is coherent and logically organized, but some points are misplaced or stray from the topic. Some transitions are used inconsistently. Main ideas reflecting some critical thinking is presented without detail or development.

Writing lacks logical organization. It shows some coherence but ideas lack unity. Many or serious errors are present. Main ideas reflect little critical thinking is presented without detail, development, or ideas are vaguely presented.

Analyze the benefits of this research

Writing shows high degree of attention to logic and reasoning of points well developed thoughts. The writing clearly leads the reader to the conclusion and stirs thought regarding the topic. Content indicates synthesis of ideas, in-depth analysis of original thought and support for the topic.

Writing is coherent and logically organized with transitions used between ideas and paragraphs to create coherence. The writing sufficiently expresses coherent ideas from original thinking supported by firm evidence. Main points well developed with quality supporting details and reflects.

Writing is coherent and logically organized, but some points are misplaced or stray from the topic. Some transitions are used inconsistently. Main ideas reflecting some critical thinking is presented without detail or development.

Writing lacks logical organization. It shows some coherence but ideas lack unity. Many or serious errors are present. Main ideas reflect little critical thinking is presented without detail, development, or ideas are vaguely presented.

Usage of correct grammar, usage, and mechanics in APA format. (1 page)

Essay is free of distracting spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors; absent of fragments, comma splices, and run-ons. Meets most criteria of APA formatting requirements.

Essay has few spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors allowing reader to follow ideas clearly. Very few fragments or run-ons. Meets some of APA formatting requirements.

Essay has several spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors allowing reader to follow ideas clearly. Very few fragments or run-ons. Meets few of APA formatting requirements.

Spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors create distraction, making reading difficult; fragments, comma splices, run-ons evident. Errors are frequent. Fails to follow APA formatting requirements.

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Module 2: Grief & Coping

Part 1: The Dying Process

Trajectories of Dying (Glaser, Strauss, & Benoleil (1966, 1968)

• Considered caregivers predictions of certainty of death and timing of death

• Four types of death expectation based on certainty and time: • Certain death at a known time • Certain death at an unknown time • Uncertain death but a known time when certainty will

be established • Uncertain death and an unknown time regarding

when the question will be resolved

Awareness Contexts

• Closed Awareness: when the person who is dying doesn’t realize it

• Suspected Awareness: person may begin to suspect their situation

• Mutual Pretense: everyone knows, but no one shares or communicates regarding the knowledge of death

• Open Awareness: willingness to discuss the fact that death is near

Stages of Dying by Kubler-Ross • Example of Western Theory of Dying • Five stages

• Denial – “It can’t be true.” • Anger – “Why me?” • Bargaining – “If you just let me live I promise I will

________.” • Depression – The person is less responsive and

thoughts are pervaded by a sense of loss • Acceptance – A final state of rest and letting go, void

of feelings and emotions

Shortcomings of Stage Theory, Applied to the Stages of Kubler-Ross • The existence of the stages has not been demonstrated • No evidence has been presented that people actually do

move from Stage 1 through Stage 5 • The limitations of the method have not been

acknowledged • The line is blurred between description and prescription • The totality of the person’s life is neglected in favor of the

supposed stages of dying • The resources, pressures, and characteristics of the

immediate environment can also make a tremendous difference

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

Corr’s Developmental-Coping Model of the Dying Process • Primary focus: empowerment for the dying

person and those who are intimately involved in caregiving

• Four challenges • Physical – satisfy bodily needs, reduce stress) • Psychological – feeling secure and in control • Social – keep attachments to individuals, groups and

causes • Spiritual – meaning, connection, transcendence, and

hope

Phases of Dying • The Pre-diagnostic phase – many will ignore

indicators of dying • The acute phase – try to understand the disease

and cope • The Chronic Phase : managing symptoms,

prevention and management • Recovery Phase- If death does not occur, coping

with the crisis • Terminal Phase-new decisions such as

preparing for death, discontinuing interventions, face ongoing challenges

Partial Models of the Dying Person’s Situation • Restricted Activity • Limited Energy • Damaged Body Image • Contagion • Disempowerment • Attributional

Incompetency • Ineffectuance • Stress Response

Overload • Time Anxiety

• Performance Anxiety • Loss and Separation • Disengagement • Journey • Closing the Book • Endangered Relationship • Struggling Brain • Storying

GRIEF, BEREAVEMENT & MOURNING

Part 2

Defining Terms: Bereavement • An objective fact:

• We are bereaved when someone close to us dies • “Close” is not easily defined

• A change in status: • Such as when a child becomes an orphan, a wife

a widow, a husband a widower • An outcome of a large-scale social phenomena:

• Those surviving a natural disaster or a war

Defining Terms: Grief • Grief is one response to bereavement; how one survives • Grief affects all spheres of life

• On a physical level • Acute grief: tightness in throat, shortness of breath,

lack of muscle power, empty feeling in abdomen • Prolonged stressor: Increased risk of cardiovascular,

infectious, & inflammatory disorders, & weakened immune system

• On a personal and interpersonal level • Confusion, attention, concentration, memory, anxiety,

and rage which may repeatedly return in waves

Defining Terms: Mourning • Mourning is the culturally patterned expression of the

bereaved person’s thoughts and feelings • Can reflect local, regional, national, ethnic, and

religious cultures at particular points in history • Examples:

• During World War I widows dressed in black with veils covering their heads

• During World War II families put a gold star in their window if they had lost a loved one

Types of Grief • Normal Grief – stays within the bounds of a particular

culture • Complicated Grief – once called “pathological” or

“abnormal,” the most common feature is that the bereaved person does not move from the shock and pain of loss toward a return to a fulfilling life

• Traumatic Grief – severe and disabling responses to sudden and often violent death

• Anticipatory Grief – how people cope with expected loss

Types of Grief • Resolved Grief – movement toward recovery from the

most debilitating effects of grief • Unresolved Grief – the debilitating effects of grief have

continued longer than would be expected (difficult to define)

• Hidden Grief – hiding any signs of grief in order to appear as “normal” as possible

• Disenfranchised Grief – occurs when society does not recognize a person’s right to grieve. Examples: health care professionals, foster parents, gay partner

Examples of Disenfranchised Grief • The grieving individual is not regarded as having the

right to grieve (at this time or under these circumstances) and must keep the sorrow hidden • When at work, school, or in public places • Nurses and caregivers • Lover or companion of an AIDS victim • When the lost companion was an animal • When the loss was a stillborn baby • When the bereaved person or the individual who died is

developmentally disabled

Freud’s Grief-Work Theory • Grief is an adaptive response to loss • The work of grief is difficult and time-consuming • The basic goal is to accept the reality of death and

thereby liberate one’ self from the strong attachment one had to the “lost object”

• Grief-work is carried out through a long series of confrontations with the reality of the loss

• The process is complicated by the survivor’s resistance to letting go of the attachment

• Failure results in continued misery and dysfunction

Interpersonal Applications of Grief-Work Theory • Bowlby’s Attachment Theory

• Our basic goal is to maintain the security provided by the significant relationship

• Stress comes as we try to re-establish the lost relationship

• In grief-work we must overcome our attachment • Parkes’ Three Basic Components of Grief-Work

• Preoccupation with thoughts of the deceased person • Repeatedly going over the loss experience • Attempts to explain the loss

Other Theoretical Approaches • Rando’s Task Theory

• Accept the loss • React to the separation • Remember and re-experience the lost person and

relationship • Give up the attachment to the person and the life

that used to be • Move into the new life but remember the old • Reinvest emotions and energies in other

relationships and activities

Other Theoretical Approaches • Stage Theories (such as Kubler-Ross)

• Most agree on the beginning and ending points, but the middle stages vary by theory

• Little independent evidence to verify the application of universal stages to the grieving process

• Dual-Process Model (Stroebe and Schut) • Must work on both:

• Emotional working through the grief • Adapting to roles and situations in the altered world

Other Theoretical Approaches • Integrated Individual-Family Model (Moos)

• Considers symptoms of family grief, such as family isolation, confusion in family roles, changes in who talks to whom, and cut-off, reconnection or overprotection of certain family members

• Evolutionary Biology Model of Grief (Archer) • Views grief in all mammals and social birds • Views social bonds as advantageous for survival, but

grief as maladaptive

How Do People Recover? Spousal Bereavement • Immediate Impact of Spousal Bereavement

• Most women experienced anticipatory grief • After the death women felt a sense of abandonment • After the death men felt a sort of dismemberment

• Emotional & Physical Reactions Soon After Bereavement • Physical symptoms lingered for weeks (pains, poor

appetite, loss of stamina, headaches, dizziness) • Women had trouble at night, wanted someone to rely on,

and felt the situation was “not fair” • Men felt guilty and were less likely to express emotions

How Do People Recover? Spousal Bereavement • Leave-Taking Ceremonies

• Women found them important and helpful • Men found them less important and too expensive

• Grief and Recovery: The Widow’s Response • Obsessional reviews of the circumstances • Tendency to idealize the husband • Strong sense that he is still with her

• Grief and Recovery: The Widowers’ Response • Cuts off obsessional reviews quickly • Faster social recovery, slower emotional recovery

How Do People Recover? Spousal Bereavement • Types of Recovery

• People who did not have the opportunity to prepare for the spouse’s death suffered more distress

• Time by itself will not facilitate recuperation • Those who were most disturbed a few weeks after the

death usually were the ones who continued to be disturbed a year later

• The quality of the marital relationship influences the grief and recovery process

How Do People Recover? Spousal Bereavement • Three Types of Unresolved Grief

• The unexpected grief syndrome (when death comes without warning, leaving disbelief and intense anxiety)

• The conflicted grief syndrome (when death occurs in a troubled relationship)

• The chronic grief syndrome (marked by dependency on deceased spouse)

• Psychosocial Transition • Vulnerable place of change • Rites of passage can be helpful

The Family That Has Lost a Child: Perinatal Death • Perinatal death – 20 weeks after conception to one month

after birth • Health care systems are more responsive • Shadow grief – stays with parents for years (like a shadow) • Contact the “inner representation” of the dead child may be

experienced for years (keeps parents’ worldview intact) • Memories, hallucinations, a presence or incorporation of

the child’s characteristics into their own personalities • Most surviving parents do not divorce • Grandparents grieve as well

Bereavement in Later Life • Most older adults cope as well as anyone • Some deal with bereavement overload

• Accumulation of experience with many losses (family, friends, pets, lifestyle)

• Risk of illness and death increases following the death of a loved one (often within 6 months) • Risk is greater for widowers than widows • Risk is greatest for young adult widowers • Higher risk for violent death and suicide • Stress of grief can weaken immune system

Meaningful Help for Bereaved People • Silverman established the Widow-To-Widow Program

prior to the development of professional grief counselors or peer-support groups • Grief does not have a final outcome • Grief can most usefully be regarded as a life transition • People can help each other

• Helpful things to say to the bereaved • “He/she will always be alive in your memories.” • “I’m here if you need somebody to talk to” • “Tell me how you are feeling”

COPING WITH DEATH

Part 3:

What is coping?

• Emotional reactions to stressful situations • Cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage

external or internal demands

Types of Coping

• Appraisal-focused coping: how one understands a stressful situation

• Emotion-Focused Coping: Trying to control one’s emotional reactions to the stressful situation

• Problem-Focused Coping: Managing or remedying the distressing situation

• Religious-based coping: Using God or a higher power to help understand and react to stressful situations (ie turning to God, working through with God’s help)

Who Copes?

• The dying person • Family members and friends • Caregivers

  • Module 2: Grief & Coping
  • Slide Number 2
  • Trajectories of Dying�(Glaser, Strauss, & Benoleil (1966, 1968)
  • Awareness Contexts
  • Stages of Dying �by Kubler-Ross
  • Shortcomings of Stage Theory, Applied to the Stages of Kubler-Ross
  • Corr’s Developmental-Coping Model of the Dying Process
  • Phases of Dying
  • Partial Models of the �Dying Person’s Situation
  • Grief, Bereavement & Mourning
  • Defining Terms: Bereavement
  • Defining Terms: Grief
  • Defining Terms: Mourning
  • Types of Grief
  • Types of Grief
  • Examples of Disenfranchised Grief
  • Freud’s Grief-Work Theory
  • Interpersonal Applications of �Grief-Work Theory
  • Other Theoretical Approaches
  • Other Theoretical Approaches
  • Other Theoretical Approaches
  • How Do People Recover? �Spousal Bereavement
  • How Do People Recover? �Spousal Bereavement
  • How Do People Recover? �Spousal Bereavement
  • How Do People Recover? �Spousal Bereavement
  • The Family That Has Lost a Child: �Perinatal Death
  • Bereavement in Later Life
  • Meaningful Help for �Bereaved People
  • Coping with Death �
  • What is coping?
  • Types of Coping
  • Who Copes?

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