Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Based on your researched literature review, you will evaluate further the extent of the problem related to your research topic. Choose which educational tool would be appropriate to addres | Wridemy

Based on your researched literature review, you will evaluate further the extent of the problem related to your research topic. Choose which educational tool would be appropriate to addres

Based on your researched literature review, you will evaluate further the extent of the problem related to your research topic. Choose which educational tool would be appropriate to addres

based on your researched literature review, you will evaluate further the extent of the problem related to your research topic. Choose which educational tool would be appropriate to address your research problem to an audience either by presenting a training (train) or webinar (inform). You will consider the topic issue, the purpose, and the target audience to illuminate. Designing a training or webinar is like mapping out a road trip or creating a journey.

Once you have determined which method you will present, submit your proposal for this presentation to address some questions accordingly.

To do this, you will start by considering the information you plan to cover in your presentation.

Be sure to consider the following questions as you develop your outline:

  1. Indicate the purpose of the presentation.
    1. Identify your target audience and provide rationalization of this selection (how it fits the problem and purpose; consider if there are any inclusion or exclusion criteria; and if they do exist, determine why they exist).
  2. Identify the need/issue/gap.
    1. Address how developing a training or webinar on the issue can satisfy this need/issue/gap.
    2. Determine how the response to this issue will affect the design of the webinar or training activities and content exploration strategies.
  3. Identify the outcomes expected from the presentation.
    1. To train others to be trainers? (Capacity building)
    2. To train/educate agencies or organizations on an emerging trend (assessments, tools, laws, change practices, EBP, etc.) or issue?
    3. To add to the body of prospectus around a certain subset of the issue?
    4. Other reasons?
  4. Identify potential implications of your presentation for the audience and other systems involved (value and need for this presentation).

Then, you will create a comprehensive outline that you will use to develop your final presentation. Provide enough detail that a reader may discern the overall ideas your presentation will address. Answer the following questions to complete this assignment:

  • General theme and subthemes: What knowledge and skill areas will be the focus of the training or webinar?
  • Goals and objectives: What do you want participants to learn during the training or webinar? What will they leave knowing more about, or what new skills will they have acquired?
  • Essential questions: What central questions should participants answer as the training or webinar unfolds?
  • Summary of participant activities (this is more typical/applicable to training): How will participants accomplish training objectives and answer the questions in numbers 2 and 3 above? (e.g., small group discussions and projects, lectures, role-playing)
  • Resources: What resources might you use to help participants accomplish the training or webinar objectives? (e.g., current research, discussions, encouragement)
  • Assessment activities: How will others determine if participants a) have reached curriculum objectives identified in number 2 above, and b) can answer the questions in number 3?

Length: 2-3 pages, not including title and reference pages

References: Include a minimum of 10 scholarly resources.

The completed assignment should address all of the assignment requirements, exhibit evidence of concept knowledge, and demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the content presented in the course. The writing should integrate scholarly resources, reflect academic expectations and current APA standards, and adhere to Northcentral University's Academic Integrity Policy.


Literature Review

Arlenn Campos

Department of forensic psychology

Northcentral University

PSY- 6510 V3 : Capstone in forensic psychology

Dr. John Mitchell

October 20, 2022


The Efficacy of Psychological Treatments for Violent Offenders in Correctional.

A. Who Are the Treatments for In a Correctional Facility?

In terms of its consequences on victims, the life quality for violators, and the financial impact it places on correctional facilities, the healthcare system, and society as a whole, violence is a serious global public health issue. According to research, a very small percentage of habitually aggressive people is liable for a disproportionately large number of violent episodes.  These individuals are often jailed or, in the case of those with mental illness, confined in secure facilities for the goal of incapacitating and rehabilitating them. Up to 70% of prison inmates, hospitalized offenders, and felons under supervision in the community in affluent countries are violent offenders, as well as clinical psychologists are frequently depended upon to handle the rehabilitative requirements of those deemed at danger of future violence. In recent years, there has been a global explosion in the creation and execution of programs addressing offender behavior (Bartol & Bartol. 2019). These efforts are the result of comprehensive meta-analytic as well as primary research demonstrating that these programs may significantly lower a criminal's likelihood to commit more offenses. Widely referred to as the "what works" or risk-need-responsivity model to offender rehabilitation, the most effective programs conform to core, empirically proven service delivery criteria (Andrews & Bonta, 2010).

1. Drug Addictions Definition

"A curable, chronic medical condition involving intricate interactions amongst neural pathways, genetics, the surroundings, and a person's life experiences," is how the American Society of Addiction Medicine describes addiction. Addicts abuse drugs or engage in activities that quickly become obsessive and, most of the time, continue doing so despite the fact that they are having negative effects on their lives. Many individuals, although not all, start taking drugs or participating in activities freely at some point in their lives. On the other hand, addiction has the potential to diminish one's capacity for self-control.

2. Offenders’ Definition

The criminal justice system labels violent offenders among the most serious criminals because they have been apprehended, found guilty, and even incarcerated for felony crimes like robbery, aggravated battery, sexual violence and spousal abuse, rape, and even murder (Woody, 2019)). Offenders who committed violent crimes either possessed, owned, or utilized a firearm or other potentially lethal weapon, which resulted in the victim's death or significant physical damage. According to the findings of a study (Conis & Delisi, 2011), individuals who commit violent crimes have personality traits that are more psychopathological in essence.

B. Psychology Treatment for Offenders

Background History

Presently, there is a lack of standardized evaluation measures, and comprehensive evaluation is instead dependent on clinical expertise and tradition (CSC, 1995). Questions are adapted from a person's early life and growth to the specifics of the most recent crime. The offending chain or problem behavior process (Ward et al. 1995) serves as the organizational framework, with assessment subjects organized around the purpose of comprehending the function of cognitive, affective, developmental, social/contextual, and behavioral factors and interrelations as they impact the offending in question and as each offending pattern continues to unfold over time (Polaschek, 2019). There are, nevertheless, a number of alternative helpful evaluation frameworks exists. The purpose of these assessment is to create a personalized case synthesis for the offender that can be used to evaluate the offender's rehabilitation progress and outcomes in light of their evaluated treatment needs, if the offender is receiving treatment independently, as part of a group "package," or some combo of the two. Assessment is now driven by medical practice, research, and conjecture regarding the applicability of needs assessment along with other offending groups to violent offenders, but no empirically generated criminogenic needs evaluations have been undertaken for this population (Howells et al. 1997).

Psychological Interventions for Individuals with a past of violent crime are talk-based programs that employ psychological concepts to interfere in the participants' ideas, emotions, and actions. These treatments are intended for adults who have a history of committing violent crimes. Adults who have a history (either self-reported or recorded by law enforcement) of violent crime, including sexual assault and domestic violence, are the primary target population for these types of therapy. The purpose of psychological therapy is to bring about a reduction in aggressive, violent, or antisocial conduct.

Ii. Treatments In a Correctional Facility

Several different types of organized psychotherapies make up the psychological therapy arsenal. Programs that aim to reduce violence comprise those that use cognitive-behavioral therapy, anger management techniques, dialectical-behavioral therapy, schema-focused therapy, and other similar approaches. Correctional institutions, community corrections programs, and parolees all get these treatments, as do inmates at forensic psychiatric hospitals and patients seen in outpatient clinics. There is considerable flexibility in the treatment timetable, which may last anywhere from 16-300 hours.

According to Travers et al. 2013, enhanced thinking skills is one such initiative. Inmates at medium to high risk, as well as those at extreme risk, are the focus of this cognitive-behavioral skills training program. Its goal is to reduce recidivism by improving its participants' ways of thinking and memory. Various mental processes, including impulse regulation, cognitive flexibility, value as well as critical reasoning, moral reasoning, relational problem-solving skills and social perspective taking are all directly or indirectly addressed in the therapy.

III. Effect on Offender in Correctional Facility

A. How Each Treatment Works for Each Person in Correction


Many of the claims that "nothing works" are debunked by current meta-analyses of prisoner rehabilitation programs, which also provide useful advice on the basic concepts associated with successful correctional programming. In an influential review of the research on correctional rehabilitation, Cullen and associate (1989) verify that differential association, cognitive models, social learning theory, skills training and behavioral systems, along with family counseling, are among the most efficacious theoretical bases for initiatives. Anti-criminal role models, problem solving, tapping into available community resources, fostering strong interpersonal bonds, enforcing rules firmly but fairly, promoting a sense of self-efficacy and competence, and preventing relapse are all vital parts of any successful intervention. There was a strong correlation between unsuccessful intervention strategies and non-directive techniques, punishment models, disincentive, and medical model strategies (Wylie et al. 2018).

The systematic development and evaluation of treatments to reduce violent crime have not historically received the same level of financing as those aimed at reducing sexual offenses against minors. Even while violent offender programs are springing up all over the world, notably there aren't many outcome analyses to help shape their future growth, and many of them have methodological flaws (Hernandez-Garcia, 2019). But a few of research in both the adolescent and adult fields provide pointers for creating effective treatment programs. Studies with better methodology, programs that seem to be focusing on high-risk instead of low-risk offenders, and programs with more than one therapy component have been given preference here. Programs like this are often delivered in a group setting, or in a hybrid setting that combines group and individual elements. Browne and Howells provide a method for treating violent offenders that is solely dependent on the details of each case (1996). Guidelines for evaluating programs are provided by Van Voorhis et al (1995).

Programs for Troubled Youth Secondary and tertiary preventive programs for violent or at-risk kids show promise. Anger management, social skills, and empathy training are only few of the topics included in the comprehensive behavioral skills program designed by Goldstein and his associates. For a wide variety of individuals and settings, such as imprisoned violent youths and teenage gangs, numerous evaluations, as reported by Goldstein and Glick (1994), recommend that Aggression Replacement Training (ART) does have the potential to influence improvements in participants on a variety of applicable outcome indices. The EQUIP programme (Gibbs, Potter, & Goldstein, 1995) is a more recent approach that combines a peer-helping group context with social and cognitive information processing skills drawn from Goldstein's ART and Prepare (Goldstein, 1988) curricula, and Yochelson and Samenow's (1977) collaborate.

Psychological help for adult offenders who use violence is often tailored to each offender's specific needs (Browne & Howells, 1996), or it focuses on the correlation between aggression and resentment (Hollin & Howells, 1989). To make matters worse, there has not been a good enough conceptual framework to guide the construction of theoretically consistent programmes. Even though there is a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of inmate violence treatments, low impact anger management (AM) sessions have been available in New Zealand prisons for over a decade. This pattern has also been seen in other incarcerated groups. Most of these programs adhere to the stress inoculation-coping skills model proposed by Novaco (1975, 1977). This may be due to Novaco's extensive theoretical foundation for anger and aggressiveness (Novaco & Welsh, 1989).

Substance Abuse

MI was created by Miller and Rollnick (1991) as a method for inspiring transformation in alcoholics and other addicts. This method employs techniques that promote showing empathy, minimizing arguing against the need for change, and addressing any lingering reluctance about making the desired adjustments. Multiple systematic reviews (e.g., Vasilaki et al.) and individual studies all lend credence to the efficacy of MI both as a primary therapy and as an adjunct to more intense programs (2006). Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) is a comparable method that has shown promise in treating drug abuse outside of the criminal justice system. When it comes to helping people overcome addiction, interpersonal skills training (IPT) and mediation training (MI) are quite comparable.

Outcomes Of the Treatment

Robinson (1995) reports outcomes on a sample of 2125 prisoners who had been undergoing community supervision for at most a year after their release from prison. The offenders were all subject to the supervision program. Out of these individuals, 67.9 % had successfully completed the program, 14.2 % had left the program, and 17.8 % were controls who had not been treated. In the first year after completing the program, there was a readmission rate of 44.5 % for program graduates and 50.1% for those on the waiting list. There were no changes in terms of technical parole breaches between untreated and treated individuals; however, there was a 20% decrease in formal reconvictions for program completers. With the exception of robbers, for whom the rates of recidivism remained steady, the number of violent criminals who were reconvicted decreased by around 35 percent. The program was most successful with low-risk offenders, and Robinson came to the conclusion that this was due to the fact that only reasonably high-risk offenders are alluded to the program.

As a result, even the inmates with the lowest risk who were included in the sample were still considered high-risk offenders in comparison to the rest of the community corrections population. The Vermont Department of Corrections offers a cognitive-based program called Cognitive Self Change (CSC) for both male and female violent offenders. Attitudes, ideas, and ways of thinking that justify violent acts are the ones this addresses. Inmates and parole officers get specialized training to facilitate the program's three stages, during which they lead groups. Results from the last several years show that program participants who stick with it for more than six months see a dramatic drop in parole violations and re-arrests. At 3 years, 45.5percent had relapsed, relative to 76.75% in the untreated group.

What Can We Do to Improve the System with Treatments?

After looking at the current alternatives for violent offenders, RN-R stood up as the most beneficial for both the victim and the offender (Kurjata, 2019). When compared to other approaches to psychological care, CBT places a greater emphasis on evidence (Jeglic, 2015).  According to Long et al. (2019) forensic psychologists have shown that CBT techniques are more helpful for trauma victims because they alleviate symptoms of despair and anxiety. Offenders seem to make better progress in programs that employ a psychoeducational approach. This allows individuals to see things from a new perspective by allowing them to respond to aggression in a manner other than they typically would. Treatment programs for ex-offenders should be made available since they may help minimize the likelihood of recidivism (Long, 2019).

Why Incorporates TIC

Enhanced resilience and empowerment for a better quality of life are achievable outcomes of learning to include evaluations and implementing TIC in a range of contexts, including state education, healthcare systems, and penal institutions (Bartlett et al., 2018). The promise of TIC to empower individuals, societies, and families worldwide and to enable people who have endured trauma to alter their anticipated paths is immense. To maintain equilibrium in the face of life's inevitable disruptions, people need to develop adaptive skills like TIC.  Dana (2021) states that for individuals incarcerated, TIC provides a solid groundwork for development, integrity, and future paths. If helping people is really the primary goal, then the patients should be given the opportunity to grow from their experiences with trauma and error with the help of TIC. Moreover, integrating TIC, which is based on research and reading comprehension, may help us create more efficient and useful programs as per Gifford (2019) findings.


In summary, a number of promising approaches for expanding programming to address violent crime have been identified via analysis of current initiatives. The vast majority of these interventions are cognitive-behavioral and include a variety of strategies to combat violent tendencies, including the correction of erroneous beliefs and the development of more realistic perspectives. Management or an independent relapse prevention process could be included, as well as preemptive treatments to boost motivation and treatment responsiveness.  There is still have a long way to go before correction facilities can create interventions for violent offenders. Assessment batteries (self-report survey questions, vignette and role-playing) that are adequate to evaluate treatment variations and scientifically associated with reoffending; violent offenders' comprehensive needs assessments; risk measures that distinguish between overall reoffending and violent recidivism are all areas that require improvement for this diverse population (Long, 2019). Lastly, as more studies are conducted, it becomes clearer that TIC is essential for all inmates, not just those on probation.


Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010). The psychology of criminal conduct, fith edition.

Bartlett, J. D., Griffin, J. L., Spinazzola, J., et al. (2018). The impact of a statewide trauma-informed care initiative in child welfare on the well-being of children and youth with complex trauma. Children and Youth Services Review, 84 , 110–117. 10.1016/j.childyouth.2017.11.015

Bartol A., & Bartol C. (2019). Introduction to forensic psychology: Research and application (5th ed.). Retrieved from

Beaudry, G., Yu, R., Perry, A. E., & Fazel, S. (2021). Effectiveness of psychological interventions in prison to reduce recidivism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.  The Lancet Psychiatry8(9), 759-773.

Cullen, F. T., & Gendreau, P. (1989). The effectiveness of correctional rehabilitation – reconsidering the “nothing works” debate. In L. Goodstein & D. L. McKenzie (Eds.), The American prison: Issues in research policy (pp. 23-44). New York: Plenum.

DeLisi, M., Conis, P. J., & Beaver, K. M. (2011). F or most of the 20th century, criminology floundered because it focused on normal processes and situations that were purported to cause people to be delinquent. Strain, anomie, stress, poverty, living in a bad neighborhood, discrimination, and hanging out with friends who enjoyed breaking the law were some ofthe dominant explanations ofcrime. Over time, especially during the 1960s and 1970s, the causes.  Violent Offenders: Theory, Research, Policy, and Practice, 1.

Gifford, K. L., Richdale, K., Kang, P., Aller, T. A., Lam, C. S., Liu, Y. M., … & Sankaridurg, P. (2019). IMI–clinical management guidelines report. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 60(3), M184-M203.

Goldstein, A. P., & Glick, B. (1994). The prosocial gang: Implementing aggression replacement training. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hernandez-Garcia, G. (2019). Effect of Juvenile Mental Illness and Adult Offending (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas at Arlington).

Hollin, C. R., & Howells, K. (1989). An introduction to concepts, models and techniques. In K. Howells & C. R. Hollin (Eds.), Clinical approaches to violence (pp. 3-24). Chichester: Wiley.

Howells, K., Watt, B., Hall, G., & Baldwin, S. (1997). Developing programmes for violent offenders. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 2, 117-128.

Kurjata, A. (2019). Today’s Offender, Tomorrow’s Victim: Analyzing the Connections Between Offenders and Victims. Crossing Borders: Student Reflections on Global Social Issues, 1(1).

Lehrer, D. (2021). Trauma-Informed Care: The Importance of Understanding the Incarcerated Women.  Journal of Correctional Health Care27(2), 121-126.

Lehrer, D. (2021). Trauma-Informed Care: The Importance of Understanding the Incarcerated Women.  Journal of Correctional Health Care27(2), 121-126.

Long, J. S., Sullivan, C., Wooldredge, J., Pompoco, A., & Lugo, M. (2019). Matching needs to services: Prison treatment program allocations. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 46(5), 674-696.

Polaschek, D. L., Day, A., & Hollin, C. R. (2019). Correctional psychology: A short history and current standing. The Wiley International Handbook of Correctional Psychology, 1-29.

Tripodi, S. J., Mennicke, A. M., McCarter, S. A., & Ropes, K. (2019). Evaluating seeking safety for women in prison: A randomized controlled trial. Research on Social Work Practice, 29(3), 281-290.

Ward, T., Louden, K., Hudson, S. M., & Marshall, W. L. (1995). A descriptive model of the offense chain for child molesters.  Journal of Interpersonal Violence10(4), 452-472.

Woodhouse, R., Neilson, M., James, M. S., Glanville, J., Hewitt, C., & Perry, A. E. (2016). Interventions for drug-using offenders with co-occurring mental health problems: a systematic review and economic appraisal.  Health & Justice4(1), 1-15.

Woody, R. H. (2019). Violence and Criminal Psychopathy. In Risks of Harm from Psychopathic Individuals (pp. 33-35). Springer, Cham.

Wylie, L. E., & Rufino, K. A. (2018). The impact of victimization and mental health symptoms on recidivism for early system-involved juvenile offenders. Law and Human Behavior, 42(6), 558–569.

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