Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Describe the concept of Communities of Practice Why are Communities of practice Important?? B. How can organizations cultivate communities of practice? How can these communities of practic | Wridemy

Describe the concept of Communities of Practice Why are Communities of practice Important?? B. How can organizations cultivate communities of practice? How can these communities of practic

Describe the concept of Communities of Practice Why are Communities of practice Important?? B. How can organizations cultivate communities of practice? How can these communities of practic

  Part 1

A. Describe the concept of Communities of Practice. Why are “Communities of practice” Important? 

B. How can organizations cultivate communities of practice? How can these communities of practice contribute towards the knowledge needs of the organization? 

C. Provide a detailed description of major roles and responsibilities in a community of practice. 

Part 2

  

A. What are the major steps involved in developing a KM strategy? What sorts of information is needed to recommend a KM strategy to an organization? List the major categories of stakeholders who should be involved in the strategy formulation process. 

B. Why is it important to conduct an audit before eliciting stakeholder objectives? 

C. Compare and contrast the three KM metrics of benchmarking, Balanced Scorecard, and house of quality. What are their major advantages and major drawbacks in monitoring progress toward strategic KM and business goals? 

Assignment Questions

Part 1. Answer in 500-600 Words.

A. Describe the concept of Communities of Practice. Why are “Communities of practice” Important?

B. How can organizations cultivate communities of practice? How can these communities of practice contribute towards the knowledge needs of the organization?

C. Provide a detailed description of major roles and responsibilities in a community of practice.

Part 2. Read Chapter 9 and 10 from the book and answer the following questions. Answer in 500-600 Words.

A. What are the major steps involved in developing a KM strategy? What sorts of information is needed to recommend a KM strategy to an organization? List the major categories of stakeholders who should be involved in the strategy formulation process.

B. Why is it important to conduct an audit before eliciting stakeholder objectives?

C. Compare and contrast the three KM metrics of benchmarking, Balanced Scorecard, and house of quality. What are their major advantages and major drawbacks in monitoring progress toward strategic KM and business goals?

References:(2 Marks). 0 Mark for No references, Less than 5 References (1 Mark) More than 5 references 2 Marks.

Answer:

,[removed],

Knowledge Management

in Theory and Practice

Second Edition

Kimiz Dalkir foreword by Jay Liebowitz

Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice

Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice

Second Edition

Kimiz Dalkir

foreword by Jay Liebowitz

The MIT Press

Cambridge, Massachusetts

London, England

© 2011 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or

mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval)

without permission in writing from the publisher.

For information about special quantity discounts, please e-mail [email protected]

This book was set in Stone Sans and Stone by Toppan Best-set Premedia Limited. Printed and

bound in the United States of America.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Dalkir, Kimiz.

Knowledge management in theory and practice / Kimiz Dalkir ; foreword by Jay Liebowitz.

— 2nd ed.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-0-262-01508-0 (hardcover : alk. paper)

1. Knowledge management. I. Title.

HD30.2.D354 2011

658.4’038 — dc22

2010026273

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Contents

Foreword: Can Knowledge Management Survive? xiii

Jay Liebowitz

1 Introduction to Knowledge Management 1

Learning Objectives 1

Introduction 2

What Is Knowledge Management? 5

Multidisciplinary Nature of KM 8

The Two Major Types of Knowledge: Tacit and Explicit 9

Concept Analysis Technique 11

History of Knowledge Management 15

From Physical Assets to Knowledge Assets 19

Organizational Perspectives on Knowledge Management 21

Library and Information Science (LIS) Perspectives on KM 22

Why Is KM Important Today? 22

KM for Individuals, Communities, and Organizations 25

Key Points 26

Discussion Points 27

References 27

2 The Knowledge Management Cycle 31

Learning Objectives 31

Introduction 32

Major Approaches to the KM Cycle 33

The Meyer and Zack KM Cycle 33

The Bukowitz and Williams KM Cycle 38

The McElroy KM Cycle 42

The Wiig KM Cycle 45

An Integrated KM Cycle 51

Strategic Implications of the KM Cycle 54

vi Contents

Practical Considerations for Managing Knowledge 57

Key Points 57

Discussion Points 57

References 58

3 Knowledge Management Models 59

Learning Objectives 59

Introduction 59

Major Theoretical KM Models 62

The Von Krogh and Roos Model of Organizational Epistemology 62

The Nonaka and Takeuchi Knowledge Spiral Model 64

The Choo Sense-Making KM Model 73

The Wiig Model for Building and Using Knowledge 76

The Boisot I-Space KM Model 82

Complex Adaptive System Models of KM 85

The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) KM Model 89

The inukshuk KM Model 90

Strategic Implications of KM Models 92

Practical Implications of KM Models 92

Key Points 93

Discussion Points 93

References 95

4 Knowledge Capture and Codifi cation 97

Learning Objectives 97

Introduction 98

Tacit Knowledge Capture 101

Tacit Knowledge Capture at the Individual and Group Levels 102

Tacit Knowledge Capture at the Organizational Level 118

Explicit Knowledge Codifi cation 121

Cognitive Maps 121

Decision Trees 123

Knowledge Taxonomies 124

The Relationships among Knowledge Management, Competitive Intelligence, Business Intelligence,

and Strategic Intelligence 131

Strategic Implications of Knowledge Capture and Codifi cation 133

Practical Implications of Knowledge Capture and Codifi cation 134

Key Points 135

Discussion Points 135

References 136

Contents vii

5 Knowledge Sharing and Communities of Practice 141

Learning Objectives 141

Introduction 142

The Social Nature of Knowledge 147

Sociograms and Social Network Analysis 149

Community Yellow Pages 152

Knowledge-Sharing Communities 154

Types of Communities 158

Roles and Responsibilities in CoPs 160

Knowledge Sharing in Virtual CoPs 163

Obstacles to Knowledge Sharing 168

The Undernet 169

Organizational Learning and Social Capital 170

Measuring the Value of Social Capital 171

Strategic Implications of Knowledge Sharing 173

Practical Implications of Knowledge Sharing 175

Key Points 175

Discussion Points 176

References 177

6 Knowledge Application 183

Learning Objectives 183

Introduction 184

Knowledge Application at the Individual Level 187

Characteristics of Individual Knowledge Workers 187

Bloom ’ s Taxonomy of Learning Objectives 191

Task Analysis and Modeling 200

Knowledge Application at the Group and Organizational Levels 207

Knowledge Reuse 211

Knowledge Repositories 213

E-Learning and Knowledge Management Application 214

Strategic Implications of Knowledge Application 216

Practical Implications of Knowledge Application 217

Key Points 218

Discussion Points 218

Note 219

References 219

viii Contents

7 The Role of Organizational Culture 223

Learning Objectives 223

Introduction 224

Different Types of Cultures 227

Organizational Culture Analysis 229

Culture at the Foundation of KM 232

The Effects of Culture on Individuals 235

Organizational Maturity Models 238

KM Maturity Models 239

CoP Maturity Models 244

Transformation to a Knowledge-Sharing Culture 246

Impact of a Merger on Culture 256

Impact of Virtualization on Culture 258

Strategic Implications of Organizational Culture 258

Practical Implications of Organizational Culture 259

Key Points 262

Discussion Points 262

References 263

8 Knowledge Management Tools 267

Learning Objectives 267

Introduction 268

Knowledge Capture and Creation Tools 270

Content Creation Tools 270

Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery 271

Blogs 274

Mashups 275

Content Management Tools 276

Folksonomies and Social Tagging/Bookmarking 277

Personal Knowledge Management (PKM) 279

Knowledge Sharing and Dissemination Tools 280

Groupware and Collaboration Tools 281

Wikis 285

Social Networking, Web 2.0, and KM 2.0 288

Networking Technologies 292

Knowledge Acquisition and Application Tools 297

Intelligent Filtering Tools 298

Adaptive Technologies 302

Strategic Implications of KM Tools and Techniques 303

Practical Implications of KM Tools and Techniques 304

Contents ix

Key Points 304

Discussion Points 305

References 306

9 Knowledge Management Strategy 311

Learning Objectives 311

Introduction 311

Developing a Knowledge Management Strategy 316

Knowledge Audit 318

Gap Analysis 322

The KM Strategy Road Map 325

Balancing Innovation and Organizational Structure 328

Types of Knowledge Assets Produced 333

Key Points 336

Discussion Points 337

References 338

10 The Value of Knowledge Management 339

Learning Objectives 339

Introduction 339

KM Return on Investment (ROI) and Metrics 343

The Benchmarking Method 345

The Balanced Scorecard Method 351

The House of Quality Method 354

The Results-Based Assessment Framework 356

Measuring the Success of Communities of Practice 359

Key Points 360

Discussion Points 362

References 362

Additional Resources 364

11 Organizational Learning and Organizational Memory 365

Learning Objectives 365

Introduction 365

How Do Organizations Learn and Remember? 368

Frameworks to Assess Organizational Learning and Organizational Memory 369

The Management of Organizational Memory 370

Organizational Learning 377

The Lessons Learned Process 378

Organizational Learning and Organizational Memory Models 379

x Contents

A Three-Tiered Approach to Knowledge Continuity 385

Key Points 390

Discussion Points 391

References 392

12 The KM Team 397

Learning Objectives 397

Introduction 398

Major Categories of KM Roles 402

Senior Management Roles 403

KM Roles and Responsibilities within Organizations 410

The KM Profession 412

The Ethics of KM 413

Key Points 419

Discussion Points 420

Note 421

References 421

13 Future Challenges for KM 423

Learning Objectives 423

Introduction 424

Political Issues Regarding Internet Search Engines 425

The Politics of Organizational Context and Culture 427

Shift to Knowledge-Based Assets 429

Intellectual Property Issues 433

How to Provide Incentives for Knowledge Sharing 435

Future Challenges for KM 440

KM Research 442

A Postmodern KM 446

Concluding Thought 447

Key Points 448

Discussion Points 449

References 450

14 KM Resources 453

The Classics 453

KM for Specifi c Disciplines 454

International KM 455

KM Journals 455

Key Conferences 456

Contents xi

Key Web Sites 457

KM Glossaries 457

KM Case Studies and Examples 458

KM Case Studies 458

KM Examples 459

KM Wikis 459

KM Blogs 459

Visual Resources 460

YouTube 460

Other Visual Resources 460

Some Useful Tools 460

Other Visual Mapping Tools 460

Note 460

Glossary 461

Index 477

Foreword: Can Knowledge Management Survive?

The title of this foreword, “ Can Knowledge Management Survive? ” is perhaps rather

strange for this second edition of this leading textbook on knowledge management

(KM). However, as the KM fi eld has taught us to be “ refl ective practitioners, ” this

question is worth pondering.

Knowledge management has been around for twenty years or more, in terms of its

growth as a discipline. Even though the roots of knowledge management go back far

beyond that, is knowledge management generally accepted within organizations, and

is KM a lasting fi eld or discipline?

To answer the fi rst question, we can review some anecdotal evidence that suggests

KM is more widely accepted within certain industries than others. Over the years,

the pharmaceutical, energy, aerospace, manufacturing, and legal industries have

perhaps been some of the leaders in KM organizational adoption. In looking toward

the future, the public health and health care fi elds are certainly well positioned to

leverage knowledge throughout the world. And as the graying workforce ensues and

the baby boomers retire, knowledge retention will continue to play a key role in

many sectors, such as in government, nuclear energy, education, and others. So, KM

has permeated many organizations and has the propensity to propagate to others.

However, there are still many organizations that equate KM to be IT (information

technology), and do not fully grasp the concept of building and nurturing a knowl-

edge sharing culture for promoting innovation. Many organizations do not have KM

seamlessly woven within their fabric, and many organizations do not recognize or

reward their employees for knowledge sharing activities. It is getting harder to fi nd

the title of a “ chief knowledge offi cer ” or a “ knowledge management director ” in

organizations, suggesting two possibilities. The fi rst is that KM is indeed embedded

within the organization ’ s culture so there is no need to single it out. The second

proposition is that KM has lost its appeal and importance, so there is no need to

have a CKO or equivalent position, especially in these diffi cult economic times.

xiv Foreword

Probably, both propositions are true, depending perhaps on the type and nature of

the organization.

So, returning to the fi rst question about KM being widely accepted within today ’ s

organizations, the jury is still out. It may be simply an awareness issue in order to

show the value-added benefi ts of KM initiatives. Or it may be that KM was the “ man-

agement fad of the day ” and we are ready to move on. I believe that KM can have

tremendous value to organizations by stimulating creativity and innovation, building

the institutional memory of the fi rm, enabling agility and adaptability, promoting a

sense of community and belonging, improving organizational internal and external

effectiveness, and contributing toward succession planning and workforce develop-

ment. KM should be one of the key pillars underpinning a human capital strategy for

the organization. As with anything else, some organizations are leaders and some are

laggards. Those who recognize the importance of KM to the organization ’ s overarching

vision, mission, and strategy should hopefully be in the winning side of the equation

in the years ahead.

Let us now address the second question posed, “ is KM a lasting fi eld? ” In other

words, does KM have endurance to stand on its own in the forthcoming years? This

relates back to whether KM is more an art than a science. KM is certainly both, and

as the KM fi eld has developed over the years, an active KM community of both prac-

titioners and researchers has emerged. There are already well over ten international

journals specifi cally devoted to knowledge management. Worldwide KM conferences

abound, and individuals can take university coursework in knowledge management,

as well as being certifi ed in knowledge management by KM-related professional societ-

ies and other organizations. There are funded research projects in knowledge manage-

ment worldwide, both from basic and applied perspectives. In addition, there are

many KM-related communities of practice established worldwide. So certainly there

is an active group of practitioners and researchers who are trying to put more rigor

behind KM to accentuate the “ science ” over the “ art ” in order to give the KM fi eld

lasting legs.

On the other hand, there is the “ art ” side of KM. Like many fi elds that draw from

a multidisciplinary approach, especially from the social sciences, there is art along

with the science. Whether KM contributes to “ return on vision ” versus “ return on

investment ” indicates some of the diffi culty in quantifying KM returns. There certainly

is a “ touchy-feely ” side to KM, but there is a sound methodological perspective to KM,

too.

Here again, the jury is still out on whether the KM fi eld will last. So what needs to

be done? This is where textbooks such as Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice

Can Knowledge Management Survive? xv

play an important role. This textbook, in its second edition, marries the theory and

practice of knowledge management; namely, it provides the underlying methodolo-

gies for knowledge management design, development, and implementation, as well

as applying these methodologies and techniques in various cases and vignettes sprin-

kled throughout the book. It addresses my fi rst question of having knowledge manage-

ment being more widely accepted in organizations by discussing how KM has been

utilized in various industry sectors and organizational settings. The book also empha-

sizes the “ science ” behind the “ art ” in order to address my second question regarding

providing more rigor behind KM so that the fi eld will endure in the years ahead.

Professor Dalkir, a leading KM researcher, educator, and practitioner, uses her

insights and experience to highlight the important areas of knowledge management

in her book. People, culture, process, and technology are key components of knowl-

edge management, and the book provides valuable lessons learned in each area. This

book is well-suited as a reference text for KM practitioners, as well as a textbook for

KM-related courses.

This book, and others, is needed to continue to take the mystique out of KM and

provide the tangible value-added benefi ts that CEOs and organizations demand. Pro-

fessor Dalkir should be commended on this new edition, which will hopefully propel

others to be believers in the power of knowledge management. As this happens, the

answers to my two KM questions will be quite obvious! Enjoy!

Jay Liebowitz, D.Sc.

Professor, Carey Business School

Johns Hopkins University

1 Introduction to Knowledge Management

A light bulb in the socket is worth two in the pocket.

— Bill Wolf (1950 – 2001)

This chapter provides an introduction to the study of knowledge management (KM).

A brief history of knowledge management concepts is outlined, noting that much of

KM existed before the actual term came into popular use. The lack of consensus over

what constitutes a good defi nition of KM is addressed and the concept analysis tech-

nique is described as a means of clarifying the conceptual confusion that still persists

over what KM is or is not. The multidisciplinary roots of KM are enumerated together

with their contributions to the discipline. The two major forms of knowledge, tacit

and explicit, are compared and contrasted. The importance of KM today for individu-

als, for communities of practice, and for organizations are described together

with the emerging KM roles and responsibilities needed to ensure successful KM

implementations.

Learning Objectives

1. Use a framework and a clear language for knowledge management concepts.

2. Defi ne key knowledge management concepts such as intellectual capital, organiza-

tional learning and memory, knowledge taxonomy, and communities of practice

using concept analysis.

3. Provide an overview of the history of knowledge management and identify key

milestones.

4. Describe the key roles and responsibilities required for knowledge management

applications.

2 Chapter 1

Introduction

The ability to manage knowledge is crucial in today ’ s knowledge economy. The cre-

ation and diffusion of knowledge have become increasingly important factors in

competitiveness. More and more, knowledge is being thought of as a valuable com-

modity that is embedded in products (especially high-technology products) and

embedded in the tacit knowledge of highly mobile employees. While knowledge is

increasingly being viewed as a commodity or intellectual asset, there are some para-

doxical characteristics of knowledge that are radically different from other valuable

commodities. These knowledge characteristics include the following:

• Using knowledge does not consume it.

• Transferring knowledge does not result in losing it.

• Knowledge is abundant, but the ability to use it is scarce.

• Much of an organization ’ s valuable knowledge walks out the door at the end of the

day.

The advent of the Internet, the World Wide Web, has made unlimited sources of

knowledge available to us all. Pundits are heralding the dawn of the Knowledge Age

supplanting the Industrial Era. Forty-fi ve years ago, nearly half of all workers in

industrialized countries were making or helping to make things . By the year 2000,

only 20 percent of workers were devoted to industrial work — the rest was knowledge

work ( Drucker 1994 ; Barth 2000 ). Davenport (2005, p. 5) says about knowledge

workers that “ at a minimum, they comprise a quarter of the U.S. workforce, and at

a maximum about half. ” Labor-intensive manufacturing with a large pool of relatively

cheap, relatively homogenous labor and hierarchical management has given way to

knowledge-based organizations. There are fewer people who need to do more work.

Organizational hierarchies are being put aside as knowledge work calls for more col-

laboration. A fi rm only gains sustainable advances from what it collectively knows,

how effi ciently it uses what it knows, and how quickly it acquires and uses new

knowledge ( Davenport and Prusak 1998 ). An organization in the Knowledg

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