Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Imagine that you work for a global automobile manufacturer as a lead training and development associate. The head of human resources (HR) has had meetings with various departments, and a t | Wridemy

Imagine that you work for a global automobile manufacturer as a lead training and development associate. The head of human resources (HR) has had meetings with various departments, and a t

Imagine that you work for a global automobile manufacturer as a lead training and development associate. The head of human resources (HR) has had meetings with various departments, and a t

Unit II PowerPoint Presentation

Instructions

Imagine that you work for a global automobile manufacturer as a lead training and development associate. The head of human resources (HR) has had meetings with various departments, and a training need was identified by the sales department. Sales have dropped considerably in the last quarter, and through a training needs analysis, it was shown that sales associates lack the proper knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) to effectively sell automobiles to various car dealerships in the United States and abroad.The head of HR has asked that you give him or her a presentation on which major training theory you would recommend to apply to this scenario to equip the sales associates with the necessary skills to increase sales.Select one training theory. This can be any of the four discussed in this unit or a training theory of your choice that interests you. Then, in your PowerPoint presentation, include the elements listed below.       

  • Discuss the training theory and its primary tenets.
  • Explain why you recommend this theory.
  • Discuss two to three activities that you would build from this theory. For example, if you chose action theory, you may create group activities where sales associates run through sales scenarios with each other to see what works and what does not. Feel free to be as creative as you would like with your given theory. 
  • Explain how your activities will address each learning style (i.e., visual, audible, and kinesthetic learning styles).

Your presentation must be at least 10 slides in length, not counting the title and reference slides. You are required to use at least one outside source and to utilize the notes section within PowerPoint. Within the notes section, include additional explanations for each slide. As you create your presentation, keep in mind that you are presenting for executives at your organization. All sources used, including the required unit resources, must be cited and referenced according to APA guidelines.

HRM 6303, Training and Development 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit II Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Formulate different developmental approaches to training. 1.1 Create training activities based on a chosen theory.

2. Describe major training-related theories.

2.1 Discuss the primary tenets of a training theory. 2.2 Explain why a theory was chosen for a specific training situation.

Course/Unit Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity

1.1

Unit Lesson Article: “Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in

Practice” Article: “We Knew It All Along! Using Cognitive Science to Explain How

Andragogy Works” Unit II PowerPoint Presentation

2.1

Unit Lesson Article: “Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in

Practice” Article: “We Knew It All Along! Using Cognitive Science to Explain How

Andragogy Works” Webpage: TEAL Center Fact Sheet No. 11: Adult Learning Theories Unit II PowerPoint Presentation

2.2

Unit Lesson Article: “Teaching Nontraditional Adult Students: Adult Learning Theories in

Practice” Article: “We Knew It All Along! Using Cognitive Science to Explain How

Andragogy Works” Webpage: TEAL Center Fact Sheet No. 11: Adult Learning Theories Unit II PowerPoint Presentation

Required Unit Resources In order to access the following resources, click the links below. Chen, J. C. (2014). Teaching nontraditional adult students: Adult learning theories in practice. Teaching in

Higher Education, 19(4), 406–418. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=a9h&AN=94773613&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Hagen, M., & Park, S. (2016). We knew it all along! Using cognitive science to explain how andragogy works.

European Journal of Training and Development, 40(3), 171–190. https://search-proquest- com.libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/docview/2085704057?accountid=33337

Teaching Excellence in Adult Literacy Center. (n.d.). TEAL Center fact sheet no. 11: Adult learning theories.

Literacy Information and Communication System. https://lincs.ed.gov/state-resources/federal- initiatives/teal/guide/adultlearning

UNIT II STUDY GUIDE

Major Training Theories

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UNIT x STUDY GUIDE

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Unit Lesson

Major Training Theories The manner in which adults and children learn is different. Therefore, before embarking upon the design and development of any training/development program, it is important to consider adult learning principles and how adults learn best. Andragogy is the study of how adults learn (Knowles, 1980). Conversely, pedagogy is the study of how children learn (Knowles, 1980). Andragogy rests upon six assumptions about the differences between how adults and children learn, which are listed below.

1. Self-concept: As people mature, their self-concept moves from being dependent on others toward being self-directed individuals.

2. Experience: As people mature, they accumulate a wealth of knowledge and experience that becomes an increasing resource for learning.

3. Readiness to learn: As people mature, their readiness to learn becomes more oriented toward the developmental tasks of their social roles (e.g., spouse, employee, parent, citizen).

4. Orientation to learning: As people mature, their perspective of time in regard to the approaches of learning shift from postponed application of knowledge to more immediate applicability. Also, there is a change from subject-focused learning to problem-focused learning.

5. Motivation to learn: As people mature, there is an increasing internal desire and motivation to learn. 6. Unlearn to learn: As people mature, the ways they have learned over time are often ingrained within

their learning approach. Interventions in adult learning help them accept fresh perspectives and new ways of learning (Knowles, 1980).

Given the various assumptions of andragogy, there are several learning theories that align with these assumptions. The theories we will explore are experiential learning, transformative learning theory, action theory, situated learning theory, and self-directed learning theory.

Experiential Learning Theory The experiential learning theory involves the process whereby knowledge is created through experience. According to Cherry (n.d.), the theory was first proposed by psychologist David Kolb. Kolb (1984) believed that the creation of knowledge is accomplished through the reflective feedback of a given experience. The four steps that depict this model are listed below.

• Concrete experience: Here, the learner is put into a situation where he or she can experience something and receive feedback from that experience. For example, a chef gathers all of the proper ingredients to bake lasagna. After going through the steps of putting the ingredients together, baking the lasagna, and serving it to the guests, the guests give feedback to the chef that the lasagna is too bland.

• Reflective observation: Here, the learner reflects upon any inconsistencies between experience and understanding. For example, the chef begins to reflect on why the guests believe the lasagna is bland. The chef may even taste the lasagna to try and pinpoint what else is needed to bring flavor to the bland lasagna.

• Abstract conceptualization: As the learner continues to reflect upon the experience, it gives rise to a new idea or modification to an existing concept. Essentially, the individual has learned from the experience. Back to our example with the chef and bland lasagna, after much reflection, the chef may realize that more salt is needed in addition to other spices and ingredients.

HRM 6303, Training and Development 3

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• Active experimentation: The learner now takes what he or she learned and begins to apply it. This can happen in the same experience or a different one. For example, the chef takes a second attempt to bake lasagna and applies what he or she learned by adding additional salt, spices, and ingredients to the lasagna. The process can be repeated until the desired results are achieved.

Transformative Learning Theory

Transformative learning theory is described as the way that learning changes how an individual thinks about the world and about himself or herself (Teaching Excellence in Adult Literacy Center [TEAL], n.d.). This type of learning requires a shift in consciousness. For example, an individual from another country comes and lives in the United States and, after learning English and becoming confident and proficient in it, has a different view of U.S. culture and practices. In transformative learning, individuals engage in reflective discourse that challenges their deeply held beliefs and assumptions, which creates a shift in their frame of thinking.

Action Theory Action learning is a reflective process whereby action is taken by a learner in a real-life learning scenario, and the learner is asked to reflect on the action taken. This type of learning is often engaged as a team. A group or team is formed and encouraged to meet on a regular basis to come up with solutions to problems. The team decides on the appropriate solution together. In this scenario, learning occurs collectively as a group as the team reflects on outcomes produced by the solution. Also, the problem-solving method is evaluated to see whether or not it was effective.

Situated Learning Theory The situated learning theory involves the use of materials, such as cases, to situate the learner in his or her own operational context. In other words, learning happens in the context of a given activity or real-world situation. For example, an individual wanting to obtain a driver’s license will first learn the information via driving school in a classroom setting. Once the classroom information has been assimilated, the driver will then be asked to demonstrate this knowledge by driving a vehicle in a controlled setting (e.g., parking lot or some other open space). After skills have been mastered in the controlled setting, the student will now be asked to drive on the road with other drivers to test his or her driving ability.

Self-Directed Learning Theory The self-directed learning theory (SDL) is a process in which adult learners take the initiative to learn without the help of others (TEAL, n.d.). Learners plan, execute, and evaluate their own learning experiences. SDL will typically happen outside of a classroom setting. The characteristics of SDL include that learners make choices about the methods, content, resources, and evaluation of the learning experience. The learners take responsibility on their own learning by determining their needs, setting their own goals, identifying resources on their own, implementing a plan to achieve their learning goals, and then evaluating their outcomes by measuring how close they have achieved their goals.

Figure 1: Cycle representing levels of the learning process

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Adult Learning Styles From the adult learning theories discussed above comes the concept of adult learning styles. As we noted earlier, the methods by which adults learn are different than the way children learn. This difference is not only in cognitive processes but also in direct learning styles. Learning styles could be referred to as the way that individuals process and take in new information (Barbe et al., 1979). According to Barbe et al. (1979), there are three major learning styles seen in adult learners. Those learning styles are visual, audible, and kinesthetic learning styles. We are exploring all three learning styles and discussing ways to tailor learning to each individual style. Visual learning: Visual learners are individuals who learn best through seeing or visualizing material. These learners have a need to see body language and facial expressions to fully understand the content. There is a preference to sit at the front within a classroom setting to avoid any obstruction to their visual senses. These learners think in pictures and learn best from visual displays. In order to cater to learning styles of the visual learner, one must take into consideration visuals to enhance the learning experience. Visual tools could include items such as diagrams, illustrated textbooks, PowerPoint slides, computer graphics, flip charts, or handouts. Audible learning: Audible learners are individuals who learn best through hearing. These individuals interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to speed, pitch, tone, and voice. Hence, discussions, talking through things, lectures, reading text aloud, and listening to recordings are the preferred learning methods of this group and the best way to cater to their learning style to enhance learning. Kinesthetic learning: Kinesthetic learners are individuals who learn best through a hands-on approach. This type of learning is also known as tactile learning. Kinesthetic learners prefer to be physically engaged in their learning by actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it difficult to sit through a lecture for long periods at a time and may become distracted by their need for exploration and activity. One thing to note when considering the learning styles above is that the entire concept of aligning training programs with learning styles is a Western-based concept and may not transfer well to all cultures. It is important to consult with local experts when designing training programs for a global audience. This will allow the trainer to tailor activities to the distinct cultural needs of the local audience.

References Barbe, W. B., Swassing, R. H., & Milone, M. N. (1979). Teaching through modality strengths: Concepts and

practices. Zaner-Bloser. Cherry, K. (n.d.). The David Kolb theory of how experience influences learning. VeryWell Mind.

https://www.verywellmind.com/experiential-learning-2795154 Knowles, M. (1980). The modern practice of adult education: Andragogy versus pedagogy (Rev. and updated

ed.). Cambridge Adult Education. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (Vol. 1).

Prentice Hall.

Visual • See It

Audible •Hear It

Kinesthetic •Do It

Figure 2: Learning styles

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Teaching Excellence in Adult Literacy Center. (n.d.). TEAL Center fact sheet no. 11: Adult learning theories. Literacy Information and Communication System. https://lincs.ed.gov/state-resources/federal- initiatives/teal/guide/adultlearning

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