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What was the key takeaways in regard to building brands Lenovo?

What was the key takeaways in regard to building brands Lenovo?

  • 2-page analysis, including:
  • Introduction – setting the context of the case
  • Analysis – PLEASE ADDRESS QUESTIONS ON pg. 13
  • Conclusion – what was the key takeaways in regard to building brands

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9-507-014 R E V : O C T O B E R 1 9 , 2 0 0 6

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Professor John Quelch and Carin-Isabel Knoop, Executive Director, Global Research Group, prepared this case. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management.

Copyright © 2006 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http://www.hbsp.harvard.edu. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Harvard Business School.

J O H N Q U E L C H

C A R I N – I S A B E L K N O O P

Lenovo: Building a Global Brand

The brand essence of Lenovo is innovation that makes a difference to customers. Branding is not a marketing issue for us, it is a business issue. We have to deliver on products and services.1

—�Deepak Advani, Chief Marketing Officer

Announced in December 2004, the $1.75 billion acquisition of IBM’s personal computer (PC) division by 20-year-old Lenovo, China’s largest PC maker, made headlines around the world. A relative upstart in the business, founded with $25,000 of seed capital from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lenovo was acquiring the IBM division that invented the PC in 1981. While Lenovo was arguably the best known brand in China and had some brand presence in Asia, it was virtually unknown to the rest of the world. In 2004, over 90% of Lenovo’s revenues came from China (see Exhibit 1 for financials).2 But with this major deal, Lenovo aimed to become a global technology giant. Annual revenues would triple to $12 billion, making Lenovo the third-largest PC maker in the world after Dell and Hewlett-Packard.

As a new multinational with 20,000 employees operating in 138 countries, Lenovo needed a global marketing and branding strategy to match its new reach. This meant determining what Lenovo stood for and designing products that supported that claim. In January 2006, 13 months after the deal was announced and eight months after it closed, Lenovo was preparing for the intense limelight that would come with its sponsorship of the February 2006 Turin Winter Olympics. There it planned to introduce a Lenovo-branded product line designed from the bottom up for small and medium enterprises, a move considered bold and risky by industry observers.

The Global PC Industry

History

Twenty-five years before this landmark deal, IBM introduced its first PC after watching the growing adoption of microcomputers and home computers in the 1970s. In particular, the commercial success of the Apple II series, which ran the financial analysis software called VisiCalc, convinced IBM that there was a role for small computers in its business. IBM relied on key technological contributions from third parties (such as the 8080 microprocessor from Intel, the DOS operating system from Microsoft, and VisiCalc from Software Arts) to quickly launch its own desktop computer. These partnerships were nonexclusive, allowing the vendors to engage with other companies who might build similar PCs. The IBM brand gave the PC instant credibility in the

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business marketplace. The PC itself was designed using a well-specified, open architecture that allowed other companies to manufacture modular and compatible peripheral components and write hundreds of applications that would make the PC useful.

An entire industry of IBM-compatible computers (often referred to as clones) developed, led by Compaq. Founded in 1982 by three former executives from Texas Instruments who each invested $1,000, Compaq made $111 million in its first year cloning IBM PCs, and raised $67 million in an IPO in 1983. That same year saw the launch of the software program Lotus 1-2-3, adding database and graphing capabilities to a spreadsheet program and greatly increasing the business utility of PCs. For the next 20 years, this product development interplay between hardware and software companies such as IBM, Microsoft, Intel, and Lotus drove remarkable worldwide growth in the PC industry.

In 1984, Compaq introduced a PC that included Intel’s new and more powerful 80386 class of microprocessors, beating IBM to market. That same year, Michael Dell began building IBM- compatible computers in his college dormitory. Dell sold directly to customers, bypassing what had become a well-established retail store distribution model. Dell allowed customers to configure PCs to meet their individual needs (e.g., changing amounts of memory or disk storage space) at a lower price. Dell took his company public in 1989, and by 1999 Dell’s sales outstripped Compaq’s.

Hewlett-Packard (HP) also entered the computer market in the 1980s. Since its founding in 1939, HP produced sophisticated electronic instruments. Eventually HP expanded into new markets such as medical and computational devices. HP introduced inkjet and laser printing technologies in 1984. A year later, HP established a joint venture in China, a pioneering step in the globalization of the PC industry. From the 1980s on, U.S.-based companies such as Motorola, Intel, AMD, and National Semiconductor made micro-processors, while other PC components (e.g., memory chips, hard drives, motherboards, and monitors) were often designed and manufactured in Asia.

In the 1990s, Microsoft and Intel set the basic standard for the PC, reducing differences among various makers’ machines. Meanwhile, the Internet boom drove demand, and vendors from all around the world brought PCs to market. Outsourcing and offshoring saw an increasing number of key PC component parts being produced outside the United States. Although Dell sourced components from Taiwan, Malaysia, and other global locations, it continued to assemble computers for domestic customers in U.S. factories. However, other companies—including IBM, HP, and Gateway—moved their entire manufacturing operations offshore. Dell also established a manufacturing operation in China to supply completed computers to customers in Asia. Dell, in fact, became Lenovo’s greatest competitor.

Consolidation

In the early 21st century, merging manufacturers sought to cut expenses or join complementary pipelines to develop new products. In an example of the former, HP in 2001 acquired Compaq, its major U.S. rival in PCs, for $20 billion. To speed integration, managers were instructed not to redesign policies or processes from scratch, but to pick them from one side or the other. Since HP was the acquirer, most of Compaq’s business practices ended up being discarded.3 Consolidation continued in early 2004, when PC manufacturer Gateway acquired eMachines for nearly $290 million, creating a company with a 7% share of the U.S. market.4 While Gateway pioneered its own unprofitable retail chain of stores, eMachines had profitably sold $1.1 billion of machines in 2003 through established retail channels.5

As a result, by 2004, approximately half of the PCs sold around the world came from five vendors: Dell led the pack with 17.9% share; HP followed with 15.9%; Lenovo, including IBM’s market share

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prior to the acquisition, held 8%; and Acer and Fujitsu-Siemens held just over 3.5% each. Many competitors shared the remaining 50% of the PC market, ranging from large corporations with household names—including Gateway, NCR, Sony, and Toshiba—to small vendors.6

Manufacturers sold 46.57 million PCs in the second quarter of 2005, nearly 17% more than for the same period in 2004. Non-U.S. markets registered the fastest growth: sales in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa grew at over 20% compared to only 11.7% in the United States.7 Sales were boosted by first-time buyers lured by falling prices. The average price of a PC system had fallen steadily from $1,700 in 1999 to about $1,000 in 2005 (see Exhibit 2).8

By the third quarter of 2005, leading vendors increased their market share at the expense of Lenovo, which fell to 7.7%.9 Lenovo was in third place globally, with combined PC sales of 3.5 million units (including those of IBM).10 Dell and HP held 18% and 16% of the market respectively. Taiwan- based Acer clocked the fastest growth among the top five PC brands in the second quarter, delivering just over 2 million units, up 62.2% over the prior year.11 Buoyed by strong relationships with business partners,12 Acer was Europe’s top PC brand and had experienced a comeback in the U.S. market. The world’s top five PC brands sold 23.52 million units, accounting for the first time for over half of the market. See Exhibit 3 for market share information.

The Legend behind Lenovo

The Rise of Legend

During its first 20 years, Lenovo evolved from a small distributor of imported computers into China’s leading computer firm. In 1984, the Chinese Academy of Sciences provided about $25,000 for 11 of its computer scientists to form the New Technology Developer, Inc. (NTD). NTD set up shop in a small concrete bungalow in Beijing with a mandate to commercialize the Academy’s research and use the proceeds to further computer science research. NTD generated early revenues by distributing imported computers such as IBM PCs to government agencies and large state-owned companies.

In 1987 the company introduced its first original product, the Legend Chinese-character card, which translated English-language operating systems into Chinese. It included a popular “association” feature that allowed users to form common Chinese phrases by typing in just a few Chinese characters. Unlike competing software products, the Legend card was a piece of hardware that attached to PC motherboards, thereby saving valuable hard drive space. NTD bundled the Legend card with the imported PCs it distributed, achieving substantial first year sales of the card, which accounted for 38% of company revenue and 46% of profit.13 The Legend card’s popularity gave a boost to the PC distribution business and the firm won several new contracts, including one to distribute HP PCs in China.14 With the success of the Legend card securing the firm’s reputation, NTD was renamed Legend Computer Company in 1989. Legend launched its own-brand PC into the Chinese market in 1990. Initially marketing only to China’s business sector, the company sold 2,000 units in 1990 and 17,000 units by 1992.15 Legend then pioneered the home computer concept in China, introducing a line of home PCs and a retail network in 1993. The Legend PC business division was formally established through a 1994 reorganization that coincided with the company’s listing on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. By 1995, Legend was the world’s fifth-largest manufacturer of motherboards.16

Yang Yuanqing was appointed general manager of the new PC division. Recalling the 29-year- old’s appointment as a “risky decision,” Legend co-founder and CEO Liu Chuanzhi later noted, “I did not really have any other choice. Most of the senior managers of the company were older than 50

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and did not have much experience working in a market environment, not to mention a rapidly changing industry like the PC industry.”17 Yang eliminated the direct sales force in favor of a network of hundreds of local distributors. The reorganization significantly improved inventory turns.18 Yang also slashed PC prices by 30% to just above cost.

In 1996, Legend introduced its first laptop model and marketed PCs carrying Intel’s Pentium chip in China, undercutting prior generation competitor prices. Increased sales volumes brought down costs dramatically, allowing Legend to make a profit while overtaking IBM as China’s PC market leader with 7% market share. In 1997, Legend signed an intellectual property agreement with Microsoft and formed an alliance with IBM for the distribution of IBM software products in China, allowing the firm to sell PCs with pre-installed IBM software.19

While competitors focused on providing new technologies for the business market, Legend designed desktops that the average Chinese consumer could use. Focusing on functionality, Legend introduced in 1999 a PC that overcame China’s complicated Internet access procedures with a preloaded one-year Internet connection. It also included Chinese voice-recognition software and a graphics pad for writing Chinese characters by hand. It quickly became China’s top selling PC.20

By 1999, Legend was China’s PC market leader (21.5% share) and well known throughout the Asia-Pacific region. 21 In addition to exporting Legend PCs, the firm continued to distribute foreign- branded PCs in China, and the combined sales made Legend the number one vendor of PCs in the region. Its 9.1% market share for PCs topped IBM’s and Compaq’s share in Asia.22

Facing an Increasingly Mature Market

Having maintained Legend’s PC market leadership in China for five consecutive years, Yang was promoted to Legend Group president and CEO in 2001. In this role, he faced new challenges: while Legend’s 30% PC market share in China far outdistanced its nearest domestic rival’s 10% share, China’s entry into the World Trade Organization meant that Legend could no longer count on local player advantages such as government imposed quotas and tariffs on imports, or restrictions on foreign companies’ ownership rights, investment, and access to distribution channels. Of particular concern was Dell’s introduction of a direct sales model in China. Legend also had to deal with the rise of other Chinese manufacturing giants, such as appliance maker Haier, introducing their own-brand PCs. Finally, upstarts and grey-market clones challenged Legend’s positioning as company providing affordable PCs.23 In response, Legend beefed up its marketing efforts, bringing in famous Chinese personalities as brand spokespersons. In 2002 Legend spent $6.6 million on advertising for the home PC segment, half Dell’s advertising budget for China.24

Legend nevertheless aimed to become a global Fortune 500 company by 2010 and managers identified two options: globalization or localization. They saw the choice as either specializing in a few product categories to develop a global IT brand or increasing the range of their product categories and adding a service business to grow primarily in the rapidly expanding Chinese market. Many Legend managers concluded in 2002 that their competitive edge over multinationals was based on local competencies and that the company was not ready to deploy resources internationally to develop a global brand.25

Beyond China

However, by 2003, Legend faced increased domestic competition and sensed a growing global opportunity. In spring 2004, the company found that the Legend name was already a registered

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trademark in several Western countries and searched for a new name to use outside China. The firm prepared for international expansion with the announcement of the new Lenovo name and logo. Lenovo was derived from “Le-” for Legend and “–novo” signifying “new” or “innovative.” The name was easy to pronounce in many languages and available for brand registration in major markets. First used just as a brand name in foreign markets, the company adopted Lenovo Group Limited as the company’s official English language name, retaining the original Chinese name for use in the home market.

In an announcement reported worldwide, Lenovo in March 2004 joined the Olympic Partner Program, the International Olympic Committee’s (IOC) highest level worldwide marketing program. “Engaging the world” was the slogan Lenovo used at its IOC signing ceremony. Under the partnership agreement, Lenovo became the exclusive provider of computing equipment and services for the Turin Olympic Winter Games in 2006 and the Beijing Summer Olympic Games in 2008.

The $80 million price of admission was a significant investment for a company with sales of around $3.2 billion. Although Lenovo would be able to benefit from using the Olympic logo for marketing and promotions and have access to exclusive worldwide marketing opportunities, the company would have to spend at least twice the sponsorship cost on advertising to leverage the investment. These advertising expenses would be spread over five years, and the company expected about half of the sponsorship cost to be paid in kind through products and services.

The Deal

A few months after negotiating the Olympics sponsorship, Lenovo in December 2004 acquired IBM’s Personal Systems Division—essentially annexing all of IBM’s PC operations—for $1.75 billion, paying $650 million in cash and up to $600 million in common stock, and assuming $500 million in IBM liabilities. Lenovo management forecasted annual operating synergies of $200 million�26�As part of the agreement, IBM continued to own 18.9% of the new company. The Chinese government owned 46% of the new entity through Legend Holdings. In 2005 private investors (mostly private equity firms, including Texas Pacific Group, General Atlantic LLC and Newbridge Capital LLC) took about 10%, leaving IBM with 13.2%, the original founders with 14.7%, and the public with 34.7%. The China Academy of Sciences held a 27.3% share as passive investor with no board seats.

For IBM, this deal was an opportunity to shed an unprofitable operation and concentrate on consulting services (including outsourcing of enterprise IT operations) and middleware solutions (software often bundled with server hardware). Deepak Advani, an IBM veteran who became Lenovo’s chief marketing officer, explained the IBM rationale: “We had to decide what the right long- term play for IBM was. PCs were more and more at the fringe, with IBM moving more and more into services. A potential acquisition by Lenovo was an option, as was spinning out the division to a private equity firm. IBM and Lenovo decided to do the deal.” A few years prior, a Lenovo manager explained, IBM had approached Lenovo for a potential similar transaction, which Lenovo had declined on the basis of the PC division’s poor shape at the time. When IBM approached Lenovo again, it was Lenovo CFO Mary Ma (considered by Fortunate Magazine to be the world’s 27th most powerful businesswoman in the world in 2005) who reviewed the deal and subsequently recommended to the top management team that Lenovo go ahead with the transaction.

As part of the deal, Lenovo gained the right to use the IBM on its products for up to five years, along with two major product offerings: the well-established IBM ThinkPad laptop and ThinkCentre desktop brands.27 The IBM logo could only be used on IBM Think-family products. For any type of advertising, the IBM logo could only be shown on the product within the ad, not as a separate logo in

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the ad. The use of the IBM logo on the Think-family products would change over time, as per the timeline shown in Exhibit 4.

In return, Lenovo promised not to compete with IBM’s services and consulting groups. IBM would continue to provide global support for the computers for five years. Finally, Lenovo also had access to IBM’s 30,000-member enterprise sales team and ongoing support from partner and channel management programs.

The ThinkPad Legacy

The highly popular ThinkPad brand and product line were central to the value of the Lenovo deal but at the same time represented a key challenge. “The research showed that in many customers’ minds the IBM and ThinkPad brands were hard to separate,” Mark McNeilly, Lenovo’s director for branding and marketing strategy explained. “They really were linked together.”

ThinkPad was introduced in 1992 and had received over 1,000 industry awards for design and engineering. The first ThinkPad, the 700C, featured a brilliant, high-resolution color screen and IBM’s patented TrackPoint device—a small red button in the middle of a keyboard that allowed easy navigation around the screen. In 1994, the ThinkPad became the first notebook to offer a built-in CD- ROM drive and, in 1997, IBM integrated a DVD drive into the ThinkPad 770—another industry first. However, not all ThinkPad innovations endured: a collapsible “butterfly” keyboard, a pen notebook, and a built-in LCD projection system all shipped but lacked widespread appeal.

Beginning in 2000, IBM effectively introduced a new product category—the ultraportables—by making laptops smaller, lighter, and more powerful. The ThinkPad i Series was introduced that year as the first notebook with built-in wireless networking. The ThinkPad T Series, introduced in 2001, again set new standards for its balance of power and portability. The T Series (T stood for travel) provided a modular design that allowed customers to easily swap out DVD drives. In 2003, IBM bundled every ThinkPad with ThinkVantage Technologies, designed to help medium and large business IT departments reduce PC management costs and increase end-user productivity.

By 2004 IBM had sold over 100 million desktops and notebooks; of those, 20 million were ThinkPads.28 At the time of the acquisition, many questioned whether Lenovo could sustain the ThinkPad brand equity. Newspapers like The Wall Street Journal recounted stories about loyal IBM users and their fears for the future: “The thing that has won my loyalty to ThinkPad is that it is practically indestructible,” one user said. “You can run a truck over it and it still works. . . . I’m concerned that the engineering budget for continuous development will get cut drastically.”29

The Opportunity and Challenges

Acquisition of the IBM PC business allowed Lenovo to move quickly into the international marketplace: the expanded firm claimed customers and businesses in 138 countries. The way IBM and Lenovo sold PCs was very complementary. In China, 70% of sales were transactional (made through business partners) and 30% by relationship (through consulting). Globally, it was the opposite, with only 30% of sales made through partners.30 Further, Lenovo’s focus had been on small businesses and consumers, whereas IBM had long targeted corporate and enterprise customers. On the supply chain side, significant operational benefits flowed from the fact that components for IBM PCs were sourced in China.

“On paper this was pretty much a match made in heaven,” Advani recalled. “We had complementary products and client bases, and practically no channel conflict. We could use the

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broad product portfolio we sell in China and use global distribution and take products around the world.” See Table A and Exhibit 5 for a before and after comparison of the product and revenue mix. Conveying the opportunity created by these complementarities was a key message to deliver to customers. See Exhibit 6 for the Lenovo customer value proposition.

Table A Global Lenovo and IBM Product and Client Footprints

Lenovo (% sales) IBM (% sales) Product type 85% desktop 60% laptop Client base 80% small business and

consumers 57% large enterprise/

mid-market Coverage Mostly China Strong around the world, but

relatively weak in China

Source: Company documents.

The only major overlap, though a welcome one, was in company cultures. “The two companies had similar values with a focus on meritocracy,” Advani said, “since Lenovo had in part modeled itself after HP and IBM. Customer focus, innovation and trustworthiness were shared values.” (See Exhibit 7 for Lenovo and IBM contributions to the industry.)

Even so, the potential remained for cultural and operational clashes between IBM veterans and Chinese nationals. There was also uncertainty about how IBM’s existing customers—who demanded the highest quality products and services—would react to the new ownership arrangement. During the transition, PC competitors would surely try to dislodge loyal customers. When asked about the Lenovo-IBM PC division merger, Michael Dell was categorical: “It won’t work.”31 “When was the last time you saw a successful acquisition or merger in the computer industry?”32

Bringing Heaven to Earth

Organization

Making sure that the “match made in heaven” would succeed required careful coordination and integration at the top and throughout the combined organization. At an early meeting, Yang addressed a dozen top executives, Advani recalled, and exhorted them to work together as they integrated the two companies:

The key message was to trust the other person. Because we all came from different backgrounds, we had to respect each other’s position. Always remember that the real competitor is outside. And be ready to compromise. Even if you think that your decision is grounded in “better business” logic or facts, you should be willing to compromise if that makes more sense. This helped us to build our business relationships and got us off to a good start.

Led by Chairman Yang and Chief Executive Steve Ward33 from IBM, Lenovo kept a small headquarters not in Beijing but in Purchase, New York, not far from IBM’s corporate headquarters. Research centers were sited in Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen (China), Yamato (Japan), and Raleigh,

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North Carolina. Operations centers would be in Beijing and Raleigh. About half of Lenovo’s would be from IBM. Of that number, over 40% already worked in China and fewer than 25% worked in the United States. Some 2,000 were members of sales teams.

In September 2005, Yang announced a management restructuring that integrated the original Lenovo and former IBM organizations. Half of the company’s top jobs went to executives of American, Australian, European, and Indian origin,34 reflecting the company’s new international composition and scope. English became the company’s working language. Working via conference calls around the clock posed challenges; the original Lenovo team was used to meeting together to solve problems. The 12-hour time difference between Beijing and the U.S. east coast also caused some strain. Many calls were scheduled very early in the morning or late at night, causing executives to work around the clock via teleconference.

However, a manager explained, the integration went well overall since both organizations were focused on winning. But some analysts and observers remained concerned: Legend became Lenovo, they argued, by keeping its organization relatively simple and nimble, able to respond rapidly to opportunities. The IBM deal brought new organizational complexity and the need to serve many more geographical markets.

Brand Strategy

Because the Lenovo name was little known outside Asia, the new enlarged company had the opportunity and challenge to build an international brand from scratch, while making the most out of the IBM legacy. Advani recalled that decisions about branding were key in the initial months:

With IBM, we did $10 billion in revenues around the world. It was clear that if we lost that business base it would make it much, much harder for us to achieve our growth aspirations. So one of the first questions I asked Yang was, ‘As chief marketing officer, do you have some ideas on a preferred branding strategy or am I free to start with a clean slate and craft a new branding strategy based on market research and our best judgment?’ And I will always remember this. He said, ‘You are the CMO and you do the market research, and we as a company will do what you recommend,’ which was terrific.

In addition to its strong market positions in China and Asia, Lenovo also had the Turin Olympics sponsorship, a bold early move that gave the new company a platform to showcase its capabilities to the world. Furthermore, the deal itself had brought Lenovo considerable public visibility and brand awareness. And IBM was one of the most trusted brands around the world, and had a series of strategic relationships that the new company could build on. In the

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