Chat with us, powered by LiveChat After reading the section of Chapter 11 pages 191-192 that discusses the ten yardsticks for ILP breifly list and discuss these concepts 'in your own words'.?chapter_11_slides.pptx | Wridemy

After reading the section of Chapter 11 pages 191-192 that discusses the ten yardsticks for ILP breifly list and discuss these concepts ‘in your own words’.?chapter_11_slides.pptx

After reading the section of Chapter 11 pages 191-192 that discusses the ten yardsticks for ILP breifly list and discuss these concepts ‘in your own words’.?chapter_11_slides.pptx

 After reading the section of Chapter 11 pages 191-192 that discusses the ten yardsticks for ILP breifly list and discuss these concepts "in your own words". 

Chapter 11: Challenges for the future

Intelligence-Led Policing (2nd Edition)

Jerry H. Ratcliffe

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

ACPO marketing study

Young people and working adults lower on the socio-economic spectrum favoured proactive, targeted, solution-oriented policing.

Midlife adults in the middle to higher socio-economic groups, older men, and ethnic groups naturally identified with visible patrolling; however, they could be readily convinced through logical argument that proactive and targeted activities are the most effective and beneficial.

It was only older women and the retired that retained a connection with visible patrolling as a symbol of reassurance, relating visible patrolling to perceptions of safety.

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

Challenges for using covert information

How do we know that informants are telling the truth?

How do we place covert information into a wider context of criminality, especially when we may not have confidential sources in other areas?

How do we manage the wider strategic responsibilities and avoid degenerating into an informant-led policing model?

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

Wood Royal Commission

Wide-ranging investigation of the New South Wales Police Force

Arthur ‘Neddy’ Smith, Sydney heroin dealer and underworld figure

Detective Sergeant Roger Rogerson, eventually convicted of perverting the course of justice and lying to a Police Integrity Commission inquiry

Also suspected of involvement in the shooting of a fellow police officer, Detective Mick Drury

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

Principle of proportionality

The principle of proportionality involves ‘balancing the seriousness of the intrusion into the privacy of the subject of the operation (or any other person who may be affected) against the need for the activity in investigative and operational terms’ (UK Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000).

Tactics that the public may deem acceptable for organised crime families may not be viewed as appropriate when used to target the shoplifter on the next street.

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

Surveillance creep?

Marx (1988) argues that we have seen an increasing acceptance of intrusive surveillance in the name of crime control.

The principle of proportionality is therefore a balance of the apposite tactics applied to the appropriate offenders and should be a tenet of intelligence-led policing.

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

28CFR23

Title 28 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 23

The purpose of 28CFR23 is to ensure that criminal intelligence systems are operated and maintained so that individual privacy and rights are not violated unless in accordance with the law.

All information must be reviewed at a minimum of every five years, and any individual, business or group named in a criminal intelligence information system must be suspected of criminal activity.

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

UK Data Protection Act 1998

The Data Protection Act 1998 applies eight principles to the retention of personal information. The information must:

Be fairly and lawfully processed.

Be processed for limited purposes and not in any manner incompatible with those purposes.

Be adequate, relevant and not excessive.

Be accurate and where necessary, up to date.

Not be kept for longer than is necessary.

Be processed in accordance with individual rights.

Be stored securely.

Not be transferred to countries outside the EU without adequate protection.

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

Human rights and police surveillance

Is a minor and localised infringement of perceived liberties an acceptable trade-off and tolerable if it creates a safer environment and (through a diffusion of benefits) extends the social benefits to surrounding areas?

Weatherburn points out, ‘If police are to create a credible threat of apprehension for carrying a prohibited weapon they are bound to conduct searches of a large number of people who, it will turn out, are not in possession of a weapon’ (Weatherburn 2004: 98).

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

The future policing environment

In 2005 a UK government report predicted that the future policing environment would be characterised by

Widespread enterprising organised criminality, proliferating international terrorism and domestic extremism;

A premium on intelligence, expertise and smart use of capacity; and

An increasingly risk-concerned public and intrusive media.

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

Four P framework for prevention

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

Emerging national security areas

Emerging areas of risk include

Corrections intelligence and the growth of gangs in prisons;

The environment; and

Biosecurity.

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

Training issues

A third of large police departments in the US do not offer GIS or crime-mapping training, and about half of the smaller departments (with less than 100 sworn officers) do not offer any crime-analysis training.

‘ILP richly integrates existing strategies and technologies into a coherent “game-plan” approach in allocating resources efficiently. Currently, without a national strategy, or a place where police executives can learn how to implement ILP, it is sitting on the shelf unused’ (Bratton 2007: 7–8).

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

Setting of crime-control priorities

Weatherburn (2004) suggests that criteria for setting of crime-control priorities include

The level of public concern;

The prevalence of a particular crime;

Attention to crime types that are becoming more prevalent;

The level of harm caused by a problem to individuals or society; and

The potential harm of a problem if left unchecked.

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

10 yardsticks for intelligence-led policing

There is a supportive and informed command structure.

Intelligence-led policing is the heart of an organisation-wide approach.

Crime analysis and criminal intelligence functions are integrated.

The focus is on crime hot spots, repeat victims, prolific offenders and criminal groups.

Analytical and executive training is available.

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

10 yardsticks for intelligence-led policing

Both tactical and strategic tasking meetings take place.

Much routine investigation is screened out.

Data are sufficiently complete, reliable and available to support quality products that influence decision-making.

Management structures exist to action intelligence products.

There is appropriate use of prevention, disruption and enforcement.

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

Summary

Making the shift to intelligence-led policing requires organisational and cultural changes that some in policing will resist.

Both police executives and analysts will have to demonstrate leadership, ownership and understanding of the tenets of intelligence-led policing for it to succeed.

© 2016 Jerry H. Ratcliffe

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