Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Post your reaction to the following questions. What was the most meaningful or impactful thing you learned from the Chapter | Wridemy

Post your reaction to the following questions. What was the most meaningful or impactful thing you learned from the Chapter

Post your reaction to the following questions. What was the most meaningful or impactful thing you learned from the Chapter

Post your reaction to the following questions.

What was the most meaningful or impactful thing you learned from the Chapter 8 material (reading, lecture, videos)? How will you change as a result of what you learned? What will you do differently?

Make sure to pay attention to your writing quality (e.g., spelling, grammar).

Chapter 8

Memory

Do you have trouble remembering important things? If you want to learn useful tips and strategies for improving your memory, this lecture is for you! Attend this lecture and you will be on your way to improving your memory.

1

Objectives

Discuss myths about memory

Understand basics of memory

Discuss ways in which to improve memory

Discuss how we often forget things; how we often alter and construct memory

2

Myths About Memory

From “Your Memory: How it Works and How to Improve It” by Kenneth Higbee

Memory is a Thing

There is a Secret to a Good Memory

There is an Easy Way to Memorize

Some People are Stuck with Bad Memories

Some People are Blessed with Photographic Memories

Some People are Too Old/Young to Improve Their Memories

Memory, Like a Muscle, Benefits from Exercise

A Trained Memory Never Forgets

Remembering Too Much Can Clutter Your Mind

People Only Use 10% of Their Mental Potential

What is Memory?

def – the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

Remember: learning – the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors

3 forms/measures of memory

Recall – measure of memory in which the person must retrieve info learned earlier

Recognition – measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned

Relearning – measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

How does memory form? The basics of Memory

Information-processing models

Modal Model of Memory / Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

Encoding – the processing of information into the memory system; getting info into the brain

Storage – the retention of encoded info over time; retain that info

Retrieval – the process of getting info out of memory storage

Sensory memory – immediate, very brief recording of sensory info

Iconic – a few tenths of a sec; echoic – 3-4 secs

Short-term memory – activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the info is stored or forgotten

Long-term memory – the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system (knowledge, skills, experiences)

Working memory – a newer understanding of STM that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial info, and of info retrieved from long-term memory

6

STM activity

7 ± 2

Dual-track memory

Explicit/declarative memories – memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”

Requires effortful processing and attention

Hippocampus and frontal lobes help process these memories for storage

Implicit memory – retention independent of conscious recollection

Automatic (unconscious) processing

Includes procedural memories (how to do something) and classically conditioned associations

You process space, time, and frequency, as well as well-learned information (word meanings) unconsciously

Poor Study Methods

Illusions of Learning

Ex: flashcards

Rehearse repeatedly

Highlighting

Rereading

Cramming

These methods often involve shallow processing

10

Strategies to improve memory (encoding strategies)

Rehearsal

Deep processing – making things meaningful

Self-referencing

Elaboration

Maintenance rehearsal – Repetition of stimuli that maintains information but does not transfer it to LTM

Elaborative rehearsal – Using meanings and connections to help transfers information to LTM

11

Strategies to improve memory (encoding strategies)

Mnemonics – memory aids

Chunking

Peg-word method

Method of loci

Keyword method

Acronyms

Face, feature, name technique

Strategies to improve memory (encoding strategies)

Organization

*Spacing effect/distributed practice

Strategies to improve memory (encoding strategies)

Organization

*Spacing effect/distributed practice

Generation effect

*Testing effect

Visualization

Retrieval cues

Context-dependent memory

State-dependent memory

Strategies to improve memory (encoding strategies)

Serial position effect

Minimize interference

Sleep!

Minimize worrying

How we often lack/lose memory(forgetting)

Encoding failure

How we often lack/lose memory(forgetting)

Storage Decay

How we often lack/lose memory(forgetting)

Retrieval failure

How we often alter and construct memory (Memory Construction errors)

ACTIVITY

“Information acquired after an event alters memory of the event.”

Misinformation effect – incorporating misleading info into one’s memory of an event

“A memory recalled is a memory modified.”

Critically Thinking about Memory

Research on memory construction reveals that memories reflect a person's biases and assumptions.

We tend to remember things the way we want

“Children are especially accurate when they have not talked with involved adults prior to the interview and when their disclosure is made in a first interview with a neutral person who asks nonleading questions”

Therefore, what?

How can you improve your study techniques based on what you learned?

What will you do differently?

What do you need to change?

“What we process, we learn. If we are not processing life. We’re not living it. Live life.” – Peter Doolittle

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,

Chapter 8

Memory

Do you have trouble remembering important things? If you want to learn useful tips and strategies for improving your memory, this lecture is for you! Attend this lecture and you will be on your way to improving your memory.

1

Objectives

Discuss myths about memory

Understand basics of memory

Discuss ways in which to improve memory

Discuss how we often forget things; how we often alter and construct memory

2

Myths About Memory

From “Your Memory: How it Works and How to Improve It” by Kenneth Higbee

Memory is a Thing

There is a Secret to a Good Memory

There is an Easy Way to Memorize

Some People are Stuck with Bad Memories

Some People are Blessed with Photographic Memories

Some People are Too Old/Young to Improve Their Memories

Memory, Like a Muscle, Benefits from Exercise

A Trained Memory Never Forgets

Remembering Too Much Can Clutter Your Mind

People Only Use 10% of Their Mental Potential

What is Memory?

def – the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information

Remember: learning – the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors

3 forms/measures of memory

Recall – measure of memory in which the person must retrieve info learned earlier

Recognition – measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned

Relearning – measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again

How does memory form? The basics of Memory

Information-processing models

Modal Model of Memory / Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

Encoding – the processing of information into the memory system; getting info into the brain

Storage – the retention of encoded info over time; retain that info

Retrieval – the process of getting info out of memory storage

Sensory memory – immediate, very brief recording of sensory info

Iconic – a few tenths of a sec; echoic – 3-4 secs

Short-term memory – activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the info is stored or forgotten

Long-term memory – the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system (knowledge, skills, experiences)

Working memory – a newer understanding of STM that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial info, and of info retrieved from long-term memory

6

STM activity

7 ± 2

Dual-track memory

Explicit/declarative memories – memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”

Requires effortful processing and attention

Hippocampus and frontal lobes help process these memories for storage

Implicit memory – retention independent of conscious recollection

Automatic (unconscious) processing

Includes procedural memories (how to do something) and classically conditioned associations

You process space, time, and frequency, as well as well-learned information (word meanings) unconsciously

Poor Study Methods

Illusions of Learning

Ex: flashcards

Rehearse repeatedly

Highlighting

Rereading

Cramming

These methods often involve shallow processing

10

Strategies to improve memory (encoding strategies)

Rehearsal

Deep processing – making things meaningful

Self-referencing

Elaboration

Maintenance rehearsal – Repetition of stimuli that maintains information but does not transfer it to LTM

Elaborative rehearsal – Using meanings and connections to help transfers information to LTM

11

Strategies to improve memory (encoding strategies)

Mnemonics – memory aids

Chunking

Peg-word method

Method of loci

Keyword method

Acronyms

Face, feature, name technique

Strategies to improve memory (encoding strategies)

Organization

*Spacing effect/distributed practice

Strategies to improve memory (encoding strategies)

Organization

*Spacing effect/distributed practice

Generation effect

*Testing effect

Visualization

Retrieval cues

Context-dependent memory

State-dependent memory

Strategies to improve memory (encoding strategies)

Serial position effect

Minimize interference

Sleep!

Minimize worrying

How we often lack/lose memory(forgetting)

Encoding failure

How we often lack/lose memory(forgetting)

Storage Decay

How we often lack/lose memory(forgetting)

Retrieval failure

How we often alter and construct memory (Memory Construction errors)

ACTIVITY

“Information acquired after an event alters memory of the event.”

Misinformation effect – incorporating misleading info into one’s memory of an event

“A memory recalled is a memory modified.”

Critically Thinking about Memory

Research on memory construction reveals that memories reflect a person's biases and assumptions.

We tend to remember things the way we want

“Children are especially accurate when they have not talked with involved adults prior to the interview and when their disclosure is made in a first interview with a neutral person who asks nonleading questions”

Therefore, what?

How can you improve your study techniques based on what you learned?

What will you do differently?

What do you need to change?

“What we process, we learn. If we are not processing life. We’re not living it. Live life.” – Peter Doolittle

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