Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Why did Napoleon want the titles 'Emperor' and Empress' for himself and his wife? Why not 'Consul'/'Mrs. Consul' or 'King'/ | Wridemy

Why did Napoleon want the titles ‘Emperor’ and Empress’ for himself and his wife? Why not ‘Consul’/’Mrs. Consul’ or ‘King’/

Why did Napoleon want the titles ‘Emperor’ and Empress’ for himself and his wife? Why not ‘Consul’/’Mrs. Consul’ or ‘King’/

 250 WORDS MINIMUM NOTHING LESS.

first read ch. 20 in Making of the West, view the film on Napoleonic Life (link in Module Three resources), and study David's painting (link below). Then answer the questions.

Crowning of Emperor Napoleon & Josephine (https://www.tripimprover.com/blog/the-coronation-of-napoleon-by-jacques-louis-david#:~:text=Napoleon%20is%20the%20person%20in%20the%20middle%20holding,the%20right%20of%20Napoleon%20is%20Pope%20Pius%20VII.)

 Life During the Early Years of Napoleon's Reign – Video – Films On Demand (oclc.org) 

Questions:

(1) Why did Napoleon want the titles "Emperor" and Empress" for himself and his wife? Why not "Consul"/"Mrs. Consul" or "King"/"Queen"?

(2) Why did Napoleon crown himself and Josephine, instead of letting the Pope do it? Why would the Pope accept the situation?

(3) What did the Church gain by accepting Napoleon's rule? In what ways did Napoleon limit the power of the Church in France?

(4) Do the relative positions of Napoleon and Josephine speak to the status of women in Napoleonic France?

(5) Do you think the artist was a supporter of Bonaparte? Why or why not?

The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures Sixth Edition

CHAPTER 20

Napoleon and the Revolutionary Legacy

1800–1830

Hunt • Martin • Rosenwein • Smith

Copyright © 2019 by Bedford/St. Martin’s

Distributed by Bedford/St. Martin’s/Macmillan Learning strictly for use with its products. Not for redistribution.

1

Napoleon and the Revolutionary Legacy 1800–1830

Chapter Twenty

I. The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte

A. A General Takes Over

Military successes and client republics

Failure in Egypt

Fall of the Directory

Bonaparte as First Consul

I. The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte

A. A General Takes Over

1. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769–1821) rose from penniless, imprisoned artillery officer to supreme ruler of France in four years.

2. After his astounding military successes in the Italian campaigns of 1796–1797, he defeated the Piedmontese and the Austrians.

3. He established client republics that were dependent upon him by negotiating directly with the Austrians, while paying his army with the cash he received as tribute to ensure its loyalty.

4. Napoleon quieted any discontent in the Directory by sending confiscated Italian art back to France.

5. In 1798, he was given command of an Egyptian invasion force sent to cut the British trade route to India. Despite French victory over the Egyptian army, British naval activity caused the invasion to fail.

6. Napoleon did introduce Enlightenment legal reform to Egypt, and his forces uncovered the Rosetta Stone, a slab of black basalt dating back to 196 b.c.e. that was inscribed with Egyptian hieroglyphics, Demotic, and Greek, allowing linguists to decipher hieroglyphs for the first time.

7. Bonaparte returned to France in October 1799, when France was in the midst of a series of crises. Powerful generals, supported by their troops, had become virtually independent.

8. Anti-Directory conspirators, including Bonaparte’s brother, arranged for the overthrow of the legislature, allowing a rump assembly to abolish the Directory and establish the consulate, a three-man executive that included Napoleon as First Consul.

9. A new constitution — without a declaration of rights — was written and submitted to the apathetic public for a vote, the results of which were falsified to show more support for the new government.

4

I. The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte —cont’d

B. From Republic to Empire

Council of State

Centralization of state power

Imperial rule

I. The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte—cont’d

B. From Republic to Empire

1. The constitution of 1799 installed Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul with the right to choose the Council of State, which drew up all the laws.

2. The Council eliminated direct elections for deputies and denied independent powers to the three houses of the legislature.

3. Although he was not religious, Napoleon signed a concordat (agreement) with Pope Pius VII (r. 1800–1823) in 1801 to reconcile Catholics to the regime. Catholicism was recognized as the religion of “the great majority of French citizens,” and the pope validated the sale of church lands that had occurred during the Revolution. Catholic priests and Protestant pastors were paid by the state.

4. Napoleon continued to centralize state power by creating the Bank of France and appointing prefects who supervised local affairs in each department in the country. He reestablished order in France, in part by using government censors and the police to limit opposition and by censoring newspapers, operas, and plays.

5. When royalists attempted to assassinate Napoleon with a bomb in 1800, his minister of police, Joseph Fouché, used the incident to arrest hundreds of Jacobins.

6. Napoleon also struck at royalists; in 1804, his agents kidnapped the duke d’Enghien, a relative of the French royal family, from Germany on false charges of having plotted against Napoleon. After a quick trial, d’Enghien was executed.

7. In 1802, Napoleon named himself First Consul for life, and in December 1804, he crowned himself emperor. His actions were approved by plebiscites.

8. Napoleon worked hard to establish his authority and to cultivate his image, which was reproduced on coins, on public monuments, and in paintings.

9. His ostentatious building projects, most of which were in the neoclassical style, included the Arc de Triomphe and the Stock Exchange.

10. Napoleon’s most trusted officials from past military campaigns helped him rule, and his effective bureaucracy was based on a patron-client relationship.

11. He reinstituted a social hierarchy that rewarded merit and talent regardless of birth. He also created an aristocracy based in part on wealth and installed his relatives in positions of power and influence.

12. In 1810, to establish a new dynasty, he divorced his childless wife Josephine and married an Austrian princess. He designated their son the king of Rome.

5

I. The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte —cont’d

C. The New Paternalism: The Civil Code

Napoleonic Code

Male domination

Education

Restrictions on workers

I. The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte—cont’d

C. The New Paternalism: The Civil Code

1. One of Napoleon’s first acts as emperor was the creation of the Civil Code, or Napoleonic Code: the first unified system of law for France.

2. Napoleon’s familial model of power placed men firmly in charge. The Civil Code reasserted the Old Regime’s system of male domination over women and insisted on a father’s control over, and responsibility for, his children.

3. The code severely curtailed women’s rights, making women responsible for private virtue because Napoleon believed a woman’s place was in the home.

4. The code was adopted in many European and Latin American countries, as well as in the French colony of Louisiana.

5. The government managed military-style education at the new lycées for boys but took little interest in educating girls.

6. All workers were required to carry a card attesting to their good conduct, and workers’ organizations were prohibited.

7. Arbitration boards were established in 1806 to settle labor disputes, but they treated workers as minors and demanded that they be represented by foremen and shop superintendents.

8. Limitations on workers’ rights won Napoleon the support of French business.

7

I. The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte —cont’d

D. Patronage of Science and Intellectual Life

Promotion of science

Napoleon and writers

Madame de Staël

François-René de Chateaubriand

I. The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte—cont’d

D. Patronage of Science and Intellectual Life

1. Napoleon promoted scientific inquiry, especially if it served practical purposes.

2. During his reign, experiments with balloons led to the discovery of laws about the expansion of gases, research on fossil shells prepared the way for new theories of evolutionary change later in the century, and new techniques of amputation and medical care were developed.

3. While he encouraged scientists, Napoleon considered most writers useless or dangerous.

4. Madame de Staël (1766–1817), like many of the country’s talented writers, had to live in exile.

5. Her novel Corinne (1807) criticized the regime by focusing on a brilliant woman thwarted by a patriarchal system.

6. Even though Napoleon restored the authority of the state and of religion, many Catholics and royalists criticized him as a usurper.

7. François-René de Chateaubriand (1768–1848) believed that Napoleon had “saved [France] from the abyss” but he still preferred monarchy and did not believe that Napoleon had done enough to defend Christian values against the Enlightenment’s emphasis on reason.

8. In his Genius of Christianity (1802), Chateaubriand argued that Napoleon did not understand the mystical power of faith.

8

II. “Europe Was at My Feet”: Napoleon’s Conquests

A. The Grand Army and Its Victories, 1800–1807

Numbers, experience, and morale

Unity

Strategy and tactics

Progress of the war

II. “Europe Was at My Feet”: Napoleon’s Conquests

A. The Grand Army and Its Victories, 1800–1807

1. Conscription provided Napoleon with a large army, and the army also offered social mobility and appealed to French patriotism. Officers who rose through the ranks were young, ambitious, and experienced, and the French military had higher morale than the armies of other powers.

2. Napoleon ended the squabbling among generals that characterized the Directory by uniting all French forces into a single Grand Army under his personal command.

3. Despite the difficult conditions under which soldiers fought, Napoleon inspired an almost fanatical personal loyalty, fighting alongside his troops in some sixty battles.

4. Napoleon’s favorite tactic was to attack the main body of the opposing army in a lightning strike with the largest force possible and to follow up decisive victories with relentless pursuit.

5. He served as his own operations officer, but he failed to train independent subordinates. Supply was a constant problem.

6. A lack of coordination among his enemies’ armies was one of his greatest advantages; he therefore maneuvered diplomatically and militarily to face them one at a time.

7. Napoleon’s victories in the battles of Marengo and Hohenlinden in 1800 forced the Austrians to agree to peace.

8. This success was followed in 1802 by the Treaty of Amiens with the British, which lasted only until 1803.

9. During this temporary truce, Napoleon sent forces to St. Domingue to retake the colony but was forced to withdraw because of the organized resistance by the black population and an epidemic of yellow fever.

10. As part of his retreat from the Western Hemisphere and because of his especial need for funds, Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in 1803.

11. When war resumed, the British navy defeated the French and their Spanish allies in the battle of Trafalgar (1805).

12. That same year, Napoleon defeated the Austrians at Ulm, and the Austrians and Russians at Austerlitz.

13. Prussia entered the war and was promptly defeated at Jena and Auerstädt in 1806.

14. In 1807, Napoleon again defeated the Russians at Friedland.

15. The ensuing treaties of Tilsit — negotiated between Napoleon and Russian tsar Alexander I (r. 1801–1825) — resulted in Prussia’s suffering a significant loss of territory.

10

II. “Europe Was at My Feet”: Napoleon’s Conquests—cont’d

B. The Impact of French Victories

Satellite kingdoms

Rule in colonized territories

Pressure for reform in Prussia and Russia

Resistance to French rule

II. “Europe Was at My Feet”: Napoleon’s Conquests—cont’d

B. The Impact of French Victories

1. By annexing some territories and setting up others as satellite kingdoms with little autonomy, Napoleon attempted to colonize much of Europe.

2. He united the disparate German and Italian states to rule them more effectively, and in 1806 he established the Confederation of the Rhine, which included almost all the German states except Austria and Prussia. The Holy Roman Emperor resigned his title and became simply emperor of Austria.

3. Napoleon consolidated Italy by annexing the territories next to France and establishing the kingdoms of Italy and Naples.

4. Annexed territories, ruled directly from France, and satellite kingdoms, usually ruled by one of Napoleon’s relatives, were subject to French laws and French-style reforms.

5. Napoleon abolished serfdom, eliminated seigneurial dues, introduced the Napoleonic Code, suppressed monasteries, subordinated church to state, and extended civil rights to Jews and other religious minorities.

6. Reactions to these innovations were mixed: real improvements in roads, public works, law codes, education, and the economy were achieved, but increased taxes and conscription to support conquests and occupations aggravated dissent.

7. Conflicts arose when Napoleon’s desire to standardize and unify came up against local insistence on old customs and traditions. Such resistance led Napoleon to annex the satellite kingdom of Holland in 1810 when his brother Louis became too sympathetic to Dutch interests.

8. Napoleon’s success put pressure on defeated rulers to rethink political and cultural assumptions. In Prussia, Frederick William III abolished serfdom, expanded the liberties of peasants, and reformed the army along French lines in order to compete.

9. Tsar Alexander I made a few efforts at reform in Russia, including the founding of new universities and urging nobles to free their serfs, but these reforms had little impact on Russian life.

10. The one power standing between Napoleon and total domination of Europe was Great Britain.

11. In 1806, Napoleon established the Continental System, which prohibited trade between Great Britain and France, its dependent states, and its allies.

12. The system at first harmed Britain’s trade, but because smuggling was rampant, British industrial growth continued.

13. Resistance to the French encouraged the development of nationalism in other countries.

14. In southern Italy, gangs of bandits and a network of secret societies, the carbonari, harassed the French army and local officials.

15. Resistance was greatest in Spain and Portugal: the nobles feared revolutionary reforms, the Catholic church spread anti-French propaganda, and the peasants fought to defend their priests and resented French requisitions of food.

16. Assisted by the British, Portuguese and Spanish rebels engaged Napoleon in a six-year war for national independence. The war was marked by brutal atrocities committed by both sides.

13

II. “Europe Was at My Feet”: Napoleon’s Conquests—cont’d

C. From Russian Winter to Final Defeat, 1812–1815

Alliance among resistance

Invasion of Russia

Napoleon’s first exile

II. “Europe Was at My Feet”: Napoleon’s Conquests—cont’d

C. From Russian Winter to Final Defeat, 1812—1815

1. By 1812, only Great Britain and Russia remained independent of Napoleon.

2. Great Britain sent aid to the Portuguese and Spanish rebels, while Tsar Alexander I made peace with the Ottoman Empire and allied himself with Great Britain and Sweden.

3. In 1812, Napoleon invaded Russia with an enormous army, engaging the main Russian force at Borodino in September, which resulted in heavy casualties on both sides.

4. Napoleon took Moscow, but the departing Russians had set the city on fire, and the tsar refused to negotiate.

5. With supplies running low, Napoleon began his retreat in October; in November, the bitter Russian winter began.

6. By December, only one-sixth of Napoleon’s original troops had returned to France.

7. Many of Napoleon’s difficulties were caused by the fact that he was fighting on two fronts, and many French soldiers were tied down in Spain and Portugal during the Russian campaign.

8. Napoleon replenished his armies by the spring of 1813, but a coalition of Russian, Austrian, Prussian, and Swedish armies — backed by British financial support — defeated him at the Battle of the Nations, as satellite provinces revolted and joined the coalition.

9. In March 1814, the French Senate deposed and exiled Napoleon to the island of Elba off the coast of Italy.

10. Louis XVIII (r. 1814–1824) was restored to the throne.

11. The new king was caught between returning émigré nobles, who demanded restoration of their lands and powers, and those who had benefited from the Revolution or from Napoleon’s reign.

12. This chaos gave Napoleon the opportunity to escape exile and return to France, which he did during the so-called Hundred Days.

13. Louis XVIII fled, and Napoleon reconstituted his army with former soldiers still loyal to him.

14. Napoleon was once again defeated by a coalition of European powers at Waterloo.

15. He abdicated and entered permanent exile on the island of St. Helena off the coast of West Africa, a British colony, where he died in 1821.

16. Napoleon’s wars killed 750,000 French soldiers and 400,000 soldiers from territories he controlled, but his unification of Europe, his spread of French reforms, and the national sentiment generated by resistance to him all set the agenda for modern European history.

15

II. “Europe Was at My Feet”: Napoleon’s Conquests—cont’d

C. From Russian Winter to Final Defeat, 1812–1815—cont’d

– Louis XVIII

– Defeat and end of Napoleon’s empire

– Impact of Napoleon

II. “Europe Was at My Feet”: Napoleon’s Conquests—cont’d

C. From Russian Winter to Final Defeat, 1812—1815—cont’d

1. By 1812, only Great Britain and Russia remained independent of Napoleon.

2. Great Britain sent aid to the Portuguese and Spanish rebels, while Tsar Alexander I made peace with the Ottoman Empire and allied himself with Great Britain and Sweden.

3. In 1812, Napoleon invaded Russia with an enormous army, engaging the main Russian force at Borodino in September, which resulted in heavy casualties on both sides.

4. Napoleon took Moscow, but the departing Russians had set the city on fire, and the tsar refused to negotiate.

5. With supplies running low, Napoleon began his retreat in October; in November, the bitter Russian winter began.

6. By December, only one-sixth of Napoleon’s original troops had returned to France.

7. Many of Napoleon’s difficulties were caused by the fact that he was fighting on two fronts, and many French soldiers were tied down in Spain and Portugal during the Russian campaign.

8. Napoleon replenished his armies by the spring of 1813, but a coalition of Russian, Austrian, Prussian, and Swedish armies — backed by British financial support — defeated him at the Battle of the Nations, as satellite provinces revolted and joined the coalition.

9. In March 1814, the French Senate deposed and exiled Napoleon to the island of Elba off the coast of Italy.

10. Louis XVIII (r. 1814–1824) was restored to the throne.

11. The new king was caught between returning émigré nobles, who demanded restoration of their lands and powers, and those who had benefited from the Revolution or from Napoleon’s reign.

12. This chaos gave Napoleon the opportunity to escape exile and return to France, which he did during the so-called Hundred Days.

13. Louis XVIII fled, and Napoleon reconstituted his army with former soldiers still loyal to him.

14. Napoleon was once again defeated by a coalition of European powers at Waterloo.

15. He abdicated and entered permanent exile on the island of St. Helena off the coast of West Africa, a British colony, where he died in 1821.

16. Napoleon’s wars killed 750,000 French soldiers and 400,000 soldiers from territories he controlled, but his unification of Europe, his spread of French reforms, and the national sentiment generated by resistance to him all set the agenda for modern European history.

16

III. The “Restoration” of Europe

A. The Congress of Vienna, 1814–1815

Goals of negotiations

Metternich, Castlereagh, and Talleyrand

The settlement

Treaties and legitimacy

III. The “Restoration” of Europe

A. The Congress of Vienna, 1814–1815

1. The Congress of Vienna balanced post-Napoleonic Europe by relying on the major powers to cooperate while guaranteeing the status of smaller states.

2. Boundaries were settled by representatives of the five major powers: Austria, Russia, Prussia, Britain, and France. The Congress of Vienna provided a model for the twentieth-century League of Nations and United Nations.

3. The Austrian prince Klemens von Metternich (1773–1859) took the lead in the negotiations.

4. He worked with the ambitious British statesman Robert Castlereagh (1769–1822) to check French aggression while preserving it as a great power to counter the ambitions of Prussia and Russia.

5. Prince Charles Maurice de Talleyrand (1754–1838) represented France. After the Hundred Days, France was deprived of all territory conquered since 1790.

6. Where possible, the congress restored traditional rulers.

7. Elsewhere, it rearranged territorial boundaries to balance the competing interests of the great powers; the duchy of Warsaw thus became the kingdom of Poland ruled by the Russian tsar.

8. The Dutch Republic and Austrian Netherlands united as the new kingdom of the Netherlands under the restored stadholder.

9. Austria took charge of the German Confederation, which replaced the Holy Roman Empire.

10. Sardinia was given Piedmont, Genoa, Nice, and part of Savoy.

11. Sweden acquired Norway and accepted Russian control of Finland.

12. The congress also condemned the slave trade in principle but did not ban it.

13. Alexander I of Russia proposed a Holy Alliance to ensure divine assistance in upholding religion, peace, and justice; Prussia and Austria agreed, but Great Britain declined.

14. From that point on, the legitimacy of states depended on a treaty system, not divine right.

17

III. The “Restoration” of Europe —cont’d

B. The Emergence of Conservatism

Basis of conservatism

Characteristics and supporters

Louis XVIII and Ultras

III. The “Restoration” of Europe—cont’d

B. The Emergence of Conservatism

1. The French Revolution and Napoleon’s domination of Europe had proved that the old order of society was subject to sudden change and disruption.

2. People needed justification to believe in restored governments, and conservatism provided that justification.

3. Conservatives believed that the Enlightenment had led to the French Revolution, which produced both the Terror and the authoritarian Napoleon.

4. The most influential spokesman of conservatism was Britain’s Edmund Burke (1729–1799), who believed that any change in government should be gradual and must respect national and historical traditions.

5. Conservatives defended hereditary monarchy and the authority of the church, arguing that the “rights of man” must be balanced by the rights of the community, and that faith, sentiment, history, and tradition must fill the vacuum left by the failure of reason and the excessive belief in individual rights.

6. Not surprisingly, conservatism had its strongest appeal in ruling circles: the ascension of Louis XVIII tested conservative beliefs in France.

7. Louis XVIII maintained the Civil Code, guaranteed rights of ownership to church lands sold during the Revolution, and created a parliament based on restricted suffrage.

8. While the king tried to follow a moderate course of compromise, the Ultras (ultraroyalists) pushed for complete repudiation of the revolutionary past.

9. In 1816, the Ultras insisted on abolishing divorce and set up special courts to punish opponents of the regime.

20

III. The “Restoration” of Europe —cont’d

C. The Revival of Religion

Catholic revival

Methodism and women

The Second Great Awakening

Missionary activities

III. The “Restoration” of Europe—cont’d

C. The Revival of Religion

1. Once peace returned to Europe, many renewed their religious faith.

2. In France, the Catholic church held ceremonies to express sorrow over the Revolution. The papacy reestablished the Jesuit order, banned during the Enlightenment.

3. Revivalist movements, which had begun in Great Britain and Germany in the eighteenth century, sometimes challenged the status quo.

4. In England, the Methodists, or Wesleyans, attracted thousands of shopkeepers, artisans, agricultural laborers, and workers in cottage industry, often to large-scale revival meetings that went on for days.

5. Although Methodism stressed obedience to the government, the group’s hostility to rigid doctrine and encouragement of popular preaching promoted a sense of democratic community and even a rudimentary sexual equality.

6. Women preachers traveled to sermonize in barns, town halls, and textile dye houses; and Sunday schools taught thousands of poor children to read and write.

7. In the United States, the second Great Awakening began around 1790, bringing together thousands of worshippers in huge camp meetings.

8. Protestant sects began missionary activity in other parts of the world in the late eighteenth century as well.

9. In India, British missionaries succeeded in getting the practice of sati — the burning alive of widows on the funeral pyres of their husbands — abolished in 1829.

10. Missionary activity by both Protestants and Catholics would become one of the arms of European imperialism and cultural influence later in the nineteenth century.

 

21

IV. Challenges to the Conservative Order

A. Romanticism

Romantic poetry

Romantic literature

Romantic painting

Romantic m

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