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Complete Phase 1: Data Familiarization of your interview data P

Complete Phase 1: Data Familiarization of your interview data P

1. Complete Phase 1: Data Familiarization of your interview data

Phase 1: Familiarising yourself with the dataset. Here, you become deeply and intimately familiar with the content of your dataset, through a process of immersion. Practically, this involves reading and re-reading your data (and, if working with transcripts of audio data, listening to the recordings at least once), and making (brief) notes about any analytic ideas or insights you may have, both related to each data item and the dataset as a whole.

2. Complete Phase 2: Coding of your interview data

Phase 2: Coding. Here, you work systematically through your dataset in a fine-grained way. You identify segments of data that appear potentially interesting, relevant or meaningful for your research question, and apply pithy, analytically-meaningful descriptions (code labels) to them. Your focus is specific, and detailed, with coding aimed at capturing single meanings or concepts. In reflexive TA, you can code at a range of levels – from the very explicit or surface meaning (we and many others term this semantic), through to the more conceptual or implicit meaning (we and others term this latent). Coding isn’t just about summarising and reducing content, it’s also about capturing your ‘analytic take’ on the data. You code the entire dataset, systematically and thoroughly. When done, you collate your code labels and then compile the relevant segments of data for each code.

3. BRING to THURSDAY'S CLASS

  • Your data familiarization notes 
  • Your code labels with relevant segments of data compiled under each. 

How to Do Thematic Analysis | Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

1

Wenjia Zhang

COMN 2200

Professor Elizabeth Suter

Oct 11,2022

Interview and Transcription

I interviewed the first interviewee through online channels, she follows the female biological clock and is my longtime friend in junior studies. The data from the interview will help view life from other people’s description and their way of thinking and how to encourage the observance of the female "biological" clock to balance between being a mother and having a career.

Interviewer: Hello, Interviewee 1. How are you? (laughs) (deep breath) Today’s topic is the female biological clock. Please feel relaxed; if you feel uncomfortable with anything, feel free to stop me anytime. Could we start now?

Interviewee 1: Sure things. (laughs)

Interviewer: So, the first question is: How has following the female biological clock impacted your life?

Interviewee 1: (erm) My improved health is a direct result of my growing appreciation for and awareness of the intricate workings of my body.

Interviewer: Got it. (erm) Let’s move on to the next question when someone describes the following biological clock as “primitive,” how does that make you feel?

Interviewee 1: (pause) I feel that the person does not exactly know what the biological clock means. I, therefore, pity them.

Interviewer: (pause) Would you like to share more?

Interviewee 1: Sure, (erm) when some women choose to give up pregnancy at a fertile period, the chances of a successful pregnancy are significantly reduced when they get older.

Interviewer: Great. (laughs) Tell me about the understanding of a woman’s biological clock program and how it has impacted your life in the journey of your motherhood.

Interviewee 1: (erm) The variability in fertility occurs over a person's lifetime and may be tracked by that person's biological clock. Because of this, I now better understand the optimal timing to have a family.

Interviewer: I understand it. (pause) So, when did you embrace the idea of following the female biological clock?

Interviewee 1: (erm) I got the idea in high school. My mother often told me that women need to do the right things at the right time, 22 is the best age to have children, and the timing is very ripe. Women can still have a lot of time to pursue their dream careers after giving birth. Even though most women around me chose to start working, I think my mother was right. (laughs)

Interviewer: There are a few questions left. Should we continue, or have a rest?

Interviewee 1: I’m good, we can continue. (laughs)

Interviewer: What would happen if, during your fertile years, you got engaged in many activities to enhance your career life? How would you do? Would you sacrifice your career to get children first? (coughs)

Interviewee 1: (erm) I don't think it would be a good idea to focus on my profession throughout my childbearing years.

Interviewer: Can you share more things?

Interviewee: (pause) I think we can move on to the next question.

Interviewer: Of course. (pause) Is there a point when your decision to follow the biological clock to have a child early was misunderstood by your peers?

Interviewee 1: Yes. (erm) It is because, in most cases, people have not understood it fully. The reaction would have been different if they had better understood it.

Interviewer: The next question is, how do you hope others will understand the importance of using the female biological clock? (coughs)

Interviewee 1: Through educating one another, we can all get to know its benefits.

Interviewer: (erm) Do you ever regret following the biological clock? Why?

Interviewee 1: (erm) I have never regretted it because I have already seen the health benefits that come with it. (pause) But sometimes I wonder if I didn't follow the female biological clock and continued to finish college and get into work, would I be more integrated with my friends? (laughs)

Interviewer: Excellent, how do you feel about following a biological clock to give birth?

Interviewee 1: (coughs) I choose to follow this path because it is easier and with no health concerns.

Interviewer: In conclusion, how do you advise other parents with daughters who have entered fertility? (pause) Will you encourage them to let their daughters follow it to avoid delayed production?

Interviewee 1: I would advise them to follow this and avoid rushing when it is too late. (laughs)

Interviewer: Thank you so much for doing the interview; it was helpful for my research topic. (laughs) I hope you have a good day. Bye.

Interviewee 1: Thank you, Wenjia. Bye. (laughs)

Honest Self-assessment:

My preparation for the first interview is relatively sufficient because it is a native language interview and an online interview, which will be relatively relaxed. Of course, there were a lot of problems in the first interview. The first point was the time difference. It was challenging to find a relatively suitable time for both sides. The second point is that the interviewee is relatively shy, and I need to encourage them to express their thoughts more.

,

1

Wenjia Zhang

COMN 2200

Professor Elizabeth Suter

Oct 20,2022

Interview and Transcription

I interviewed the second interviewee online, who followed the female biological clock and was six months pregnant. The data from the interview will help view life from other people’s description and their way of thinking and how to encourage the observance of the female "biological" clock to balance between being a mother and having a career.

Interviewer: Hello, Interviewee 2. How are you? (laughs) I’m sorry to bother you in the early morning.

Interviewee 2: It's okay. I've been waking up very early since I got pregnant. (laughs)

Interviewer: Ok. (pause) Today’s topic is the female biological clock. There is a total of 11 questions. Maybe I need to spend an hour. (erm) Please feel relaxed; if you need a rest, just let me know, and we can stop anytime.

Interviewee 2: Sounds great. (laughs)

Interviewer: Could we start now? (laughs)

Interviewee 2: Sure. (laughs)

Interviewer: (erm) The first question is: How has following the female biological clock impacted your life?

Interviewee 2: (erm) As many women reach the peak of their reproductive years, they tend to feel pressured to get pregnant. I was aware that fertility begins to decline for many women once they approach their mid thirty's. It motivated me to plan my pregnancy at the right age. (erm) Following the female biological clock has changed my life for the better. I do not need to worry about fertility treatments. Fertility treatments are also costly and have many risks involved. (coughs) I am also glad that I do not have to deal with the feelings of anxiety on the biological clock that get intense as women get older. (laughs) (pause) Many risks are associated with late pregnancies, such as cesarean section delivery, gestational diabetes, low birth weight babies, and many more. (erm) My choice of following the female biological clock is excellent since it does not pose any risks to my health, both physically and mentally. I am glad I am pregnant at the right age with no troubles. (laughs)

Interviewer: Excellent. (laughs) The next question is when someone describes the following biological clock as “primitive,” how does that make you feel?

Interviewee 2: (pause) I always need to educate the person about what it is. (laughs) (erm) Most people think getting pregnant young is an obstacle, especially in their careers. (erm) However, people do not understand the bitter fact that the female biological clock would not slow down just because they are not ready to start a family due to a career or other concerns. (pause) It is crucial for women, especially those in their early twenties, to understand the benefits of getting pregnant at their most fertile age when they are not exposed to risks. I always try to teach people, especially ladies my age, to embrace following the biological clock for their benefit. (coughs)

Interviewer: Understand. (coughs) (erm) Tell me about the understanding of a woman’s biological clock program and how it has impacted your life in the journey of your motherhood.

Interviewee 2: (erm) As people become older, their bodies naturally generate fewer eggs and sperm, and those produced are lower quality. As a result, one can make informed decisions on the optimal timing to have a family. I have been successful in both the planning and accomplishment of my maternal objectives (laughs). (coughs) The peak fertility age for most women is in their early twenties, while the fertility rate decreases as they approach 30. As a result, the chances of women at 40 getting pregnant is approximately 2-3% each month.

Interviewer: (erm) Can you share more thoughts on this question?

Interviewee 2: (laughs) Of course. The age-related fertility decline results in the quantity and quality of eggs in women going down. It means that the woman will lose many eggs as she ages. (erm) Furthermore, the quality of eggs in an aged woman will be affected by age and decrease, making it difficult to get pregnant and have a healthy baby. (pause) Most embryos in women over the age of 40 are genetically abnormal. Therefore, it is essential to get pregnant in your early 20s when you are confident of having a healthy baby. Understanding the female biological clock has been eye-opening, and I am glad I embraced it. My pregnancy journey has been smooth. (laughs)

Interviewer: Good job. (laughs) So, when did you embrace the idea of following the female biological clock?

Interviewee 2: I embraced this idea after learning the importance of following the biological clock in a specific family. (laughs)

Interviewer: (erm) (pause) There are a few questions left. Do you need a rest?

Interviewee 2: Yes, I think I need a rest. I may need some water. (laughs)

Interviewer: Of course. (laughs) We can have a ten-minute break.

Interviewee 2: Thanks.

(Pause for 6 minutes)

Interviewee 2: Hi, Interviewer. I am ready. (laughs) We can continue the rest of the interview.

Interviewer: Great. (laughs) What would happen if, during your fertile years, you got engaged in many activities to enhance your career life? How would you do? (pause) Would you sacrifice your career to get children first? (coughs)

Interviewee 2: (pause) I don't think it's a good idea to put off having children to advance in one's job. A composite female will examine her tummy and agonize about her life decisions. (erm) I understand that modern society has encouraged women's empowerment to a great extent. As a result, women have access to better careers and educational opportunities. (pause) (coughs) However, despite the positive changes in women's roles, fertility is still limited by age. (erm) It is selfish for a woman to choose her career over a healthy baby. Most people know that the ability to have a healthy embryo weakens with age. (erm) Therefore, choosing to postpone motherhood due to a job is just ignorance and a poor decision. The career factor causes intense anxiety to women, especially when deciding the right time to approach parenthood. (pause) Despite the advanced fertility treatments available, having children in the most fertile years is the best option. I would choose children first, and I focus on my career later. (coughs)

Interviewer: Understood. (coughs) Is there a point when your decision to follow the biological clock to have a child early was misunderstood by your peers?

Interviewee 2: Many times. I have always shown them the sense of it (laughs). Most of my peers perceive that a lady should spend her early 20s focusing on her career, finances, and finding the right partner. (erm) (pause) However, they don't understand that the biological clock will not accommodate delayed reproduction. (coughs) The reasons for delaying motherhood can be justifiable, but the fact remains that fertility diminishes with age.

Interviewer: (erm) The next question is, how do you hope others will understand the importance of using the female biological clock?

Interviewee 2: (erm) (pause) I hope healthcare facilities can help educate people about its significance. Women should be aware that the level of reproductive hormones and the health of their eggs diminishes with age. (pause) Furthermore, we should educate them on the risk of certain conditions that can make it difficult for them to get pregnant as they age. Conditions such as uterine fibroids, cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, and endometriosis, among others, significantly affect pregnancy in women. (erm) Healthcare facilities should also educate women on the risks involved in advanced fertility treatments and greatly discourage them. Young women should be encouraged to follow the female biological clock and have children at a young age. (laughs)

Interviewer: Great. (erm) Do you ever regret following the biological clock? Why?

Interviewee 2: Not even once. (laughs) I have tremendously benefited from this; thus, I have no reason to look back and regret it. My mental health has been very stable, especially during my pregnancy. (laughs) I have had no reason for the anxiety or stress often associated with late pregnancies. Having a child at my fertile age convinced me that my baby would be healthy and no risks such as cesarean delivery would be associated. (laughs)

Interviewer: (laughs) How do you feel about following a biological clock to give birth? (coughs)

Interviewee 2: (erm) This is a natural method with no side effects or regrets.

Interviewer: Almost done. (laughs)

Interviewee 2: Awesome. (laughs)

Interviewer: (pause) In conclusion, how do you advise other parents with daughters who have entered fertility? (erm) Will you encourage them to let their daughters follow it to avoid delayed production?

Interviewee 2: (erm) Parents should encourage their daughters to pursue this path because it can help alleviate stress related to delayed production.

Interviewer: (erm) Do you want to add something else we didn’t mention?

Interviewee 2: Yes. (laughs) Women of childbearing should be encouraged to eat a balanced diet and limit alcohol, smoking, and consuming caffeine. It will play a significant role in improving their reproductive health.

Interviewer: Well done. Thank you so much for doing the interview; it was helpful for my research topic. I hope you have a good day. Bye. (laughs)

Interviewee 2: Thank you, Interviewer. Bye. (laughs)

Self-Assessment:

I think my second interview was more informative than the first one. I encourage interviewees to say more. And there is a proper rest adjustment time in the middle of the interview, which is very helpful for this interview.

,

1

Wenjia Zhang

COMN 2200

Professor Elizabeth Suter

Oct 23,2022

Interview and Transcription

I interviewed the third interviewee through online channels; she is a parent who lets her daughter track the female biological clock. She also followed the female biological clock when she was young. The data from the interview will help view life from other people’s description and their way of thinking and how to encourage the observance of the female "biological" clock to balance between being a mother and having a career.

Interviewer: Hello, Interviewee 3. (laughs) How are you?

Interviewee 3: I’m good. (laughs) What about you? How was your study in the US? (laughs)

Interviewer: (erm) I’m good. It is midterm period, so busy. (coughs)

Interviewee 3: When are you planning to go back home? (laughs)

Interviewer: Actually, I don’t know. (erm) Maybe summer. (laughs)

Interviewee 3: Sounds great. (laughs)

Interviewer: Ok. Let’s get back on the right track. (pause) (laughs) The interview topic is the female biological clock. Please feel relaxed; if you feel uncomfortable with any questions, feel free to stop me anytime. (coughs)

Interviewee 3: I will. (laughs)

Interviewer: Could we start now? (laughs)

Interviewee 3: Sure. (laughs) Please go ahead.

Interviewer: The first question is: How has following the female biological clock impacted your life? (coughs)

Interviewee 3: (pause) I always encourage my daughter to follow the biological clock because it helps improve our health; we need to learn about and appreciate the processes by which our body operates. (laughs) (erm) While most women nowadays are delaying parenting for professional reasons, and some are afraid they lack the emotional maturity to start a family, this decision often has adverse consequences later in their lives. (coughs)

Interviewer: Got it. Could you share more thoughts on this question? (laughs)

Interviewee 3: Of course. (laughs) By keeping tabs on my biological clock, I could schedule my life so that my personal and professional goals would not clash with the window of opportunity for having my children as set by the biological clock. (erm)(pause) I am aware, too, that a woman's fertility might start to diminish well before she is ready to start a family and that by the time she is prepared on all fronts. It can be profoundly discouraging and even depressing to find that she is past the best biological time to start a family. (pause) Thus, I am relieved that I can keep track of my biological clock and use that information to make wise decisions about my life and sidestep the health and emotional dangers of giving birth later in life. (coughs)

Interviewer: Great. (laughs) The next question is when someone describes the following biological clock as “primitive,” how does that make you feel?

Interviewee 3: (pause) I do not feel bad because I know many people do not understand this precisely. (laughs) I usually take my time to converse with them on the significance of following a biological clock and the risks of not adhering to it. (erm) Most believe that getting pregnant earlier in life is primitive and associated with lower income, (erm) lower educational levels, and economic difficulties. These individuals do not consider that education and finances can be achieved even after childbirth and enjoy life. (coughs) I always try to educate them that being a mother at a relatively young age is not an archaic practice; instead, it is more advantageous to the child's health.

Interviewer: Thank you. (pause) Tell me about the understanding of a woman’s biological clock program and how it has impacted your life in the journey of your motherhood.

Interviewee 3: The key to success is thinking critically and acting on that thinking. (pause) (erm) Starting a family might go more smoothly if you know your reproductive physiology and plan appropriately. (erm) Women’s fertility fluctuates throughout their lifetimes. The "biological clock" program stresses the difficulty of conceiving later in life (the late thirties) due to the natural reduction in egg and sperm count and quality with age. (coughs) It also represents the emotional stress one may experience if they have not started a family by a specific period. (erm) This program encouraged me to plan my reproductive time well to avoid the challenges of delayed childbirth. (erm) Adherence to the program has also helped me strike a healthy balance between my professional and personal life, with fewer conflicts on either front. (laughs)

Interviewer: I understand it. (erm) So, when did you embrace the idea of following the female biological clock? (coughs)

Interviewee 3: (pause) (erm) One of my sisters had a tough time getting a child when she married at 36. (erm) It got me thinking about the importance of the biological clock. (pause) I weighed the challenges she had gone through, which included expensive fertility treatments, anxiety, depression, and possible divorce. (coughs) I did not want to go through the same difficulties and therefore decided to try my luck by embracing the biological clock. By then, I was in my early twenties. (erm) Since then, I can testify that the biological clock is excellent since it has helped me avoid those challenges, ensuring my health, both physically and mentally.

Interviewer: Excellent. (laughs) (pause) What would happen if, during your fertile years, you got engaged in many activities to enhance your career life? (erm) How would you do? (erm) Would you sacrifice your career to get children first?

Interviewee 3: (pause) This is a tricky question. (laughs)

Interviewer: (laughs) Take your time to think about it.

Interviewee 3: (erm) (coughs) I would first sacrifice my career and get back later. (pause) Though most women currently prefer to pursue their careers till early in life, this decision has negatively affected most of them as they face challenges trying to conceive in old age. (erm) The significant difficulties adversely affect their physical and mental health and finances, leaving some depressed. (erm) Delaying childbearing is a risky endeavor that necessitates careful consideration of potential adverse outcomes for fertility, the pregnancy itself, maternal and infant health, and women's capacity to care for children and be "good" mothers. (pause) Some risks of defying the biological clock are premature births, miscarriages, infertility, and prolonged labor. The health of babies born in old age may also be at risk due to conditions such as Down syndrome due to declined reproductive potential. (coughs) Hence, it will mean I risk my baby's life over a career. I would therefore forego my job and make the conscious decision to start a family while my reproductive potential is at its highest. (laughs)

Interviewer: Understood. (coughs) Is there a point when your decision to follow the biological clock to have a child early was misunderstood by your peers?

Interviewee 3: (laughs) People will always be adamant when they do not understand something. (erm) Most of my peers always thought and told me that starting a family early was a wrong choice with adverse repercussions on my future life, significantly since I had not yet stabilized my career and finances. (pause) They believed that a woman was supposed to build their career first and stabilize economically before deciding to have children. (laughs) However, I always took time to explain to them the importance of following the biological clock and that fertility declines over time while a career does not. (coughs)

Interviewer: Let’s have a 10-minute break! (laughs)

Interviewee 3: Ok. Thanks (laughs)

(Pause for 10 minutes)

Interviewer: Welcome back. (laughs) The next question is, how do you hope others will understand the importance of using the female biological clock? (coughs)

Interviewee 3: (erm) Parents should educate their children about the significance of this method. (pause) As a woman ages, her reproductive hormones decline, and her eggs become less viable, making it difficult to conceive. (pause) In addition, people should be aware of the possibility of developing diseases that make pregnancy more challenging as they age. (erm) Doing this will encourage people to embrace the biological clock, minimizing the risks of delayed childbirth.

Interviewer: (pause) Do you ever regret following the biological clock? (erm) Why?

Interviewee 3: I think it is the best for my daughter. (laughs) She is always happy with this decision. (laughs) I am also glad I followed it, as it has been excellent in helping me plan my reproductive time well. My daughter and I have had no pregnancy-related issues. Hence, we have no single regret for following the biological clock. (laughs)

Interviewer: Excellent. How do you feel about following a biological clock to give birth? (erm) Why did you choose to let your daughter follow it? (coughs)

Interviewee 3: (laughs) I allowed my daughter to follow this so that she can produce during her fertile period. I also encouraged her to embrace it since I knew the benefits that come with embracing it and the challenges of not adhering to it. (coughs) Keeping track of the biological clock helped me avoid these challenges, and I feel doing so will also benefit my daughter. (pause) I think following the biological clock is excellent for all women since it helps avoid childbirth-related risks. (laughs)

Interviewer: In conclusion, how do you advise other parents with daughters who have entered fertility? (coughs) Will you encourage them to let their daughters follow it to avoid delayed production?

Interviewee 3: (pause) The age of peak fertility varies from person to person, just as the age at which women begin and end menstruation. Therefore, parents should advise their children to produce when they are productive. (laughs) Parents should also encourage their children to follow the biological clock to minimize the anxiety caused by childbirth delays and risks.

Interviewer: (erm) Do you want to say something else? (laughs)

Interviewee 3: (laughs) No. (erm) I think I have finished all the things I want to say. (laughs)

Interviewer: Thank you so much for doing the interview; it was helpful for my research topic. (laughs) I hope you have a good day. (laughs)

Interviewee 3: Thank you, Interviewer. Remember to tell me when you come back to China. (laughs)

Interviewer: I will. (laughs)

Self-assessment:

I think my third interview was relatively successful. After the first two interviews, the third interview became relatively relaxed. The first two interviews were very tense and stiff. I only read the sentences I prepared. In the third interview, I was already very familiar with the interview questions, so the whole atmosphere was very harmonious.

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