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From the YAWP reading, what new information did you learn from George R.T. Hewes; personal account of the Boston Tea Party? From the YAWP reading, what tactics does Thomas Paine use to co

From the YAWP reading, what new information did you learn from George R.T. Hewes; personal account of the Boston Tea Party? From the YAWP reading, what tactics does Thomas Paine use to co



Prepare a multi-paragraph essay (including an introduction paragraph, body paragraphs, and a conclusion) with a minimum of 500 words. Create an essay that addresses information below and includes your reaction to the ideas presented. See further instructions below.

Use Times New Roman font, size 12, double-space the text of your essay, and use 1 inch margins on all sides.

Follow English grammar standards and rules, using use college-level language.




1)    Road to Revolution

a. Read the  YAWP  readings – links provided at the bottom.  

b. Read Chapter 5 of the  US History online text

c. Review the  PowerPoint provided.

Questions to answer in your essay:

From the YAWP reading, what new information did you learn from George R.T. Hewes’ personal account of the Boston Tea Party? 

From the YAWP reading, what tactics does Thomas Paine use to convince colonists to oppose a monarchy? 

Read through the  Acts, in chapter 5 of the US History online text, put upon the colonists by the King of England. What message was the King sending the colonists? 

The Declaration of Independence has been called the ultimate break-up letter. It is a letter to the King of England and it also encourages that colonists to what to separate themselves from the King; the reasons are listed out why "he" is terrible. How did the men who signed the Declaration essentially sign their death warrants? 

Why was the anti-slavery clause removed from the final draft? Do some research on your own. 

What does the anti-slavery clause call slaves? Do you find this shocking? 

What was the public’s reaction to John Adams’ serving as legal representation of the British soldiers following the Boston Massacre? Research on your own. 

Why did the colonists and military leaders rely so heavily on spies during the war? 

Guerilla warfare tactics are one of the reasons that the Colonists won the war. Who did they learn these tactics from? 

YAWP Reading: Thomas Paine Calls for American independence, 1776

YAWP Reading: George R. T. Hewes, A Retrospect of the Boston Tea-party, 1834




2)  “Remember the Ladies”

a. Read the letters –  provided on our Moodle course page within the Week 3 Project folder.    

b. Read  The Status of Women on pages 169-171 of your textbook.


Questions to answer in your essay:

I included the Benjamin Franklin’s letter so that you may understand how women were viewed by men during this time. We must understand that Abigail Adams' letter was quite brave and out of the ordinary. In general, men viewed women, during the 1700s, as subservient and inferior to men. Most women, in Abigail's position, would not have risked losing their social status and the life to which they had become accustomed by writing such a letter. Are women property? Are they marriage partners? Are they only "vassals" (subordinates) of men?

What was Abigail Adams asking for when she wrote, "Remember the ladies"? (Hint: It's not equal rights. That would have been far too much to ask for.)

What does she mean by "…all men would be tyrants…"?

What does "despotism of the petticoat" mean?

Why does Abigail Adams write a letter to her friend, Mercy Otis Warren, after receiving John Adams’ reply?

What does she tell her friend?

Do you think Abigail Adams felt like her husband had heard her pleas and respected her views? Explain.

Why are the women mentioned on pages 187-189 of your textbook seen as revolutionaries?

Were women represented in the Constitution? Explain.

Are women now represented in the Constitution? Explain?

What would a government set up by all women look like? (Currently Finland’s top government leaders are all women.)




3)    Create a Country / Government that you would want to live in / under

Please DO NOT just re-create our current government system. Be creative. Think outside the box.

 Read Chapter 7 & 8 of your online textbook

· What type of government will you have?

· Choose from the following:

· Direct Democracy

· Republic

· Democratic Socialism

· Oligarchy

· Federation

Include terms that are appropriate for your Country and Government. You Must include some of these terms in your essay, describing your country’s government.

· Articles of Confederation

· Popular Sovereignty

· Republicanism

· Federalism

· Separation of Powers

· Checks and Balances

· Limited Government

· Individual Rights

· Natural Rights

· Bill of Rights

· Electoral College

· Separation of church and state

In developing your country's government, consider the following questions when creating your country’s government.

1. What kind of authority figure(s) will your government have?

2. How will you decide who has authority? (i.e. voting by all citizens, voting by elites, primogeniture, self-appointed and defended, etc.)   Think about the type of government you have chosen.

3. Do you have Wealth Discrimination or Wealth Distribution?

4. What rights will your government be responsible for protecting? Think of at least 5 fundamental rights. (You may refer to the U.S. Bill of Rights to help you decide.)

5. Is civic engagement important under your government?

6. How are your citizens informed of current events? i.e. How do they know what is happening in the government and with its leaders?

7. Who are considered citizens? Is there limited citizenship?

8. What possible problems might arise in your form of government?

9. How does the government raise money?

10. What role does religion play in your country / government? Or does it play a role?

11. Are citizens required to attend school? Why or why not?  How much schooling is required?

12. How is education paid for?

13. Does your country have a military? Why or why not? To what purpose? How is the military funded?

14. How are laws enforced?

15. What problems might arise due to the form of authority you chose? (i.e. is revolution likely?)


Formatting Instructions

Include specific references (in-text citations) to the ALL of the sources provided and the information from the web link in your essay.

DO NOT copy and paste ANY of your essay from ANY print or Internet source.  This is academic plagiarism and will result in an automatic zero for the Exam.


Minimum of 3 credible, scholarly sources.

Please USE your textbook as a source.

DO Not use .com, .net. or .orgs

Do Not use Wikipedia

Do not use an encyclopedia as one of your major sources. These are compilations, not a scholarly source.

You can use .edu and .gov

I strongly encourage you to use  EbscoHost.

Here’s the link:


You must  CITE  all sources used  within the text of your essay ( using in-text citations) and provide a  Works Cited Page of those sources; you may use whichever style you are most familiar: APA, MLA, Chicago. If you need assistance with this, please let me know.


Lucy Smith

Professor Jones

U.S. History 1877 to Present

August 20, 2018

Little Rock Nine

The Little Rock Nine helped to give power and force to the Civil Rights Movement by participating in the desegregation of Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. Their actions are recognized as one of three events that helped spark a revolution for the equality of the races in the United States of America. The Little Rock Nine consisted of: Minnijean Brown, Terrance Roberts, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Melba Patillo, Gloria Ray, Jefferson Thomas, and Carlotta Walls. Ernest Green was the first African-American to graduate from Central High School, and Martin Luther King Jr. attended his graduation ceremony (Stanford University). The others also graduated and continued their education at various universities.

Central High School in Little Rock was a school in Arkansas that, like all schools at this time, still operated under the segregation laws. In order to spark the change for desegregation, the president of Arkansas’ branch of The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Daisy Bates, recruited students to attend Central High School (Stanford University). The nine African-American students chosen to desegregate Central High were to meet together on September 4, 1957 and enter the school building. However, Ms. Bates heard that several whites were planning violent actions to stop the children from entering the building. Ms. Bates called the parents of eight of the nine children and informed them that the entry date had been delayed. However, Elizabeth Eckford’s mother did not have a phone and did not get word of the change (Fitzgerald, 14-15).

Elizabeth Eckford’s mother had purchased a new, white dress for the occasion of her daughter getting to attend Central High School, which was known as the school to attend in Little Rock if you wanted to go to college. Elizabeth took the bus, alone, to the school, expecting to see Ms. Bates and the other eight students waiting. To her shock and disbelief, she did not see her friends or Ms. Bates, but saw armed guards and thought that they were there for her protection. She then tried entering the school and found that the guards were not there to protect her but to keep her out. A mob of white people then began to form behind her, slandering her, and putting fear into her as she ran for the bus stop. She sat and waited for that bus while the crowd behind her screamed and cursed at her (Fitzgerald, 20-22).

The Little Rock Nine continued to face adversity and obstacles on their path of integration and to equality. White mobs threw stones at them and at the school attempting to end their path. Along with the mobs were approximately 270 National Guardsmen sent by the Arkansas Governor Faubus who was a proponent of white supremacy and segregation (Fitzgerald, 22-26). These attempts to put out of the spark of integration incited a team of lawyers from the NAACP, including Thurgood Marshall, to win a federal district court injunction so that Governor Faubus could no longer stop the Little Rock Nine from entering the school. On September 23, 1957, the Little Rock Nine were finally allowed to enter Central High as students (Stanford University).

Martin Luther King Jr. sent a telegram to President Eisenhower concerning the Little Rock Nine. Dr. King said that, if the president did not take a stance against the injustices in Little Rock, the process of integration would be set back fifty years. Once Eisenhower realized that the incident was becoming an international problem, the president sent the Army’s 101st Airborne Division to protect the students for the rest of the year (Stanford University).

The Little Rock Nine’s problems would not end on just the first day. The idea of segregation and white supremacy were so ingrained in the minds of the other students that they too became hostile towards the Little Rock Nine. Throughout the year, the other students would burn African-American students’ books, cover everything in their lockers with ink, and urinate on their books, and make their lives at Central High as difficult as possible. Melba Patillo was even sprayed in the face with acid from a water gun, but luckily, one of the guardsmen saw the incident and rinsed her face with water, stopping any permanent damage. The African-American students and their parents received death threats and all kinds of harassment (Fitzgerald, 87).

Rather than give in to the Supreme Court’s ruling for integration, Arkansas’ Governor Faubus decided to close all four of Little Rock’s public schools. However, in December of 1959 the Supreme Court ruled that the schools must reopen and allow access to all students (Stanford University).

The Little Rock Nine helped change our country and helped bring to light the problems faced by African-Americans, especially students desiring a good education. Without their courage and sacrifice, the Civil Rights Movement would not have had the force it needed to persevere. Several books and articles have been written about these nine African-American students, and they continue to be a source of inspiration of people still fighting for equal rights in the twenty-first century.

Works Cited

Fitzgerald, Stephanie. The Little Rock Nine : Struggle for Integration. Minneapolis, MN : Compass Point Books, 2007.

Stanford University. “Little Rock School Desegregation.” The Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute, 22 May 2018, . Accessed 23 September 2019.


Abigail Adams to John Adams, 31 March 1776

Abigail Adams to John Adams

Braintree March 31 1776

Tho we felicitate ourselves, we sympathize with those who are trembling least the Lot of Boston should be theirs. But they cannot be in similar circumstances unless pusilanimity and cowardise should take possession of them. They have time and warning given them to see the Evil and shun it.—I long to hear that you have declared an independancy—and by the way in the new Code of Laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make I desire you would Remember the Ladies, and be more generous and favourable to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands. Remember all Men would be tyrants if they could. If perticuliar care and attention is not paid to the Laidies we are determined to foment a Rebelion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice, or Representation.

That your Sex are Naturally Tyrannical is a Truth so thoroughly established as to admit of no dispute, but such of you as wish to be happy willingly give up the harsh title of Master for the more tender and endearing one of Friend. Why then, not put it out of the power of the vicious and the Lawless to use us with cruelty and indignity with impunity. Men of Sense in all Ages abhor those customs which treat us only as the vassals of your Sex. Regard us then as Beings placed by providence under your protection and in immitation of the Supreem Being make use of that power only for our happiness.


John Adams to Abigail Adams (in reply to her March 31 letter):

Ap. 14, 1776

 As to your extraordinary Code of Laws, I cannot but laugh. We have been told that our Struggle has loosened the bands of Government every where. That Children and Apprentices were disobedient — that schools and Colledges were grown turbulent — that Indians slighted their Guardians and Negroes grew insolent to their Masters. But your Letter was the first Intimation that another Tribe more numerous and powerfull than all the rest were grown discontented. — This is rather too coarse a Compliment but you are so saucy, I wont blot it out.

Depend upon it, We know better than to repeal our Masculine systems. Altho they are in full Force, you know they are little more than Theory. We dare not exert our Power in its full Latitude. We are obliged to go fair, and softly, and in Practice you know We are the subjects. We have only the Name of Masters, and rather than give up this, which would compleatly subject Us to the Despotism of the Peticoat, I hope General Washington, and all our brave Heroes would fight. I am sure every good Politician would plot, as long as he would against Despotism, Empire, Monarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy, or Ochlocracy. — A fine Story indeed. I begin to think the Ministry as deep as they are wicked. After stirring up Tories, Landjobbers, Trimmers, Bigots, Canadians, Indians, Negroes, Hanoverians, Hessians, Russians, Irish Roman Catholicks, Scotch Renegadoes, at last they have stimulated to demand new Priviledges and threaten to rebell.


Abigail Adams to Mercy Otis Warren, 27 April 1776

Braintree April 27 1776

I set myself down to comply with my Friends request, who I think seem’s rather low spiritted.

I did write last week, but not meeting with an early conveyance I thought the Letter of But little importance and tos’d it away. I acknowledg my Thanks due to my Friend for the entertainment she so kindly afforded me in the Characters drawn in her Last Letter, and if coveting my Neighbours Goods was not prohibited by the Sacred Law, I should be most certainly tempted to envy her the happy talant she possesses above the rest of her Sex, by adorning with her pen even trivial occurances, as well as dignifying the most important. Cannot you communicate some of those Graces to your Friend and suffer her to pass them upon the World for her own that she may feel a little more upon an Eaquality with you?—Tis true I often receive large packages from P[hiladelphi]a. They contain as I said before more News papers than Letters, tho they are not forgotton. It would be hard indeed if absence had not some alleviations.

I dare say he writes to no one unless to Portia oftner than to your Friend, because I know there is no one besides in whom he has an eaquel confidence. His Letters to me have been generally short, but he pleads in Excuse the critical state of affairs and the Multiplicity of avocations and says further that he has been very Busy, and writ near ten Sheets of paper, about some affairs which he does not chuse to Mention for fear of accident.

He is very sausy to me in return for a List of Female Grievances which I transmitted to him. I think I will get you to join me in a petition to Congress. I thought it was very probable our wise Statesmen would erect a New Goverment and form a new code of Laws. I ventured to speak a word in behalf of our Sex, who are rather hardly dealt with by the Laws of England which gives such unlimitted power to the Husband to use his wife Ill.

I requested that our Legislators would consider our case and as all Men of Delicacy and Sentiment are averse to Excercising the power they possess, yet as there is a natural propensity in Humane Nature to domination, I thought the most generous plan was to put it out of the power of the Arbitary and tyranick to injure us with impunity by Establishing some Laws in our favour upon just and Liberal principals.

I believe I even threatned fomenting a Rebellion in case we were not considerd, and assured him we would not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we had neither a voice, nor representation.

In return he tells me he cannot but Laugh at My Extrodonary Code of Laws. That he had heard their Struggle had loosned the bands of Goverment, that children and apprentices were dissabedient, that Schools and Colledges were grown turbulant, that Indians slighted their Guardians, and Negroes grew insolent to their Masters. But my Letter was the first intimation that another Tribe more numerous and powerfull than all the rest were grown discontented. This is rather too coarse a complement, he adds, but that I am so sausy he wont blot it out.

So I have help’d the Sex abundantly, but I will tell him I have only been making trial of the Disintresstedness of his Virtue, and when weigh’d in the balance have found it wanting.

It would be bad policy to grant us greater power say they since under all the disadvantages we Labour we have the assendancy over their Hearts

And charm by accepting, by submitting sway.

I wonder Apollo and the Muses could not have indulged me with a poetical Genious. I have always been a votary to her charms but never could assend Parnassus myself.

I am very sorry to hear of the indisposition of your Friend. I am affraid it will hasten his return, and I do not think he can be spaired.

“Though certain pains attend the cares of State

A Good Man owes his Country to be great

Should act abroad the high distinguishd part

or shew at least the purpose of his heart.”

Good Night my Friend. You will be so good as to remember me to our worthy Friend Mrs. W——e 1 when you see her and write soon to your


RC (MHi: Warren-Adams Coll.); docketed in two later hands: “Mrs. Adams April 1776 No 6.” Dft (Adams Papers); undated and without indication of addressee, but at head of text JQA wrote “To Mrs. Warren,” and CFA added the tentative date “May 1776?”; text of Dft slightly shorter than that of RC.

1 . Mrs. John Winthrop. Last paragraph of Dft reads, instead: “I congratulate my Friend upon her Honorable apointment; I was told a few days ago, that a committee of 3 Ladies was chosen to Examine the Tory Ladies, your Ladyship, our Friend Mrs. W——e and your correspondent were the persons.”


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