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The Role of Strategic Management and Leadership Traits on Employee Perf

The Role of Strategic Management and Leadership Traits on Employee Perf

on this report there are side comments/feedback that my instructor has written about my report. once after you have made the correction please click on his comment and at the right hand corner click on the box with the arrow and under my name place Done, so hell know that section has been fixed. This helps him keep better track of what needed and has been done.

If you are needing a little more information about the whole tracking ordeal, just let me know. There is a special feature on Microsoft under (Review, then Tracking) that turns tracking on so he could see. Hopefully it'll place my name up there instead of  yours. If it dose place your name instead just let me know. 

Thank you for all your help. 

The Research Proposal: The Role of Strategic Management and Leadership Traits on Employee Performance, Motivation, and Job Satisfaction : Chapters 1 – 5 of the Dissertation Comment by Bob Widner: Please present only the title of your dissertation here. Comment by Bob Widner: Consider adding your research design.

Submitted to South University

College of Business

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

For the Degree of

Doctor of Business Administration

XXXXXXXX

November 2022

THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL BUS8100 – BUS8120

Running Head: THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL BUS8115 – BUS8120

Abstract Comment by Bob Widner: This abstract is likely not accurate or complete as it reflects the results from Ch. 4. As Ch. 4 stands the results are incomplete and inaccurate.

The research study will focus on the role of strategic management traits on employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. A literature review shows that strategic management style affects employees' performance, determination, and job satisfaction. Pioneer scholars have extensively researched strategic management styles though there is limited literature on the impacts of management traits. The purpose of the study is to illustrate the need for new management approaches in organizational management by comparing the varying effects of management and leadership traits on performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. The existing management styles have weaknesses necessitating the need for more advanced approaches that can address these limitations. The study looks at different management traits to blend them to meet employees' needs and organizations' objectives. The researchers will use a situational strategic management theoretical framework to venture into the study. The framework recognizes the need for leadership adaptability based on situations. Stakeholders will use the findings to strengthen organizational management. In this study, researchers are using management, as well as leadership in other areas.

Dedication

I would like to think God first and foremost for seeing me through my whole doctoral program. It was with him that I was able to pull through it all, and through him all things were and have been possible. You have blessed my family and me with so much. We all thank you for everything that you have done, and are doing. Lord, you are my confidant, my Alpha and Omega, you are my creator, and that’s why you are so amazing! Amen.

This current dissertation is dedicated to my mother Constance, who never stopped loving me, giving me encouraging words, and pushing me to excel. She was always there when I needed a shoulder to cry on, and she held me tight reassuring that everything was going to be okay. Words cannot express the love I have for my mother. I am so blessed to have a mother like you! I hope I have made you so proud.

To my Grandmother Evangelist Rudy, you have also been that strong woman or backbone in my like as well. Anytime I needed you, you were right there! I would like to thank you for your love, and encouraging words of wisdom and truth. I love you!

To my Son De’Andre, mommy loves you so much little boy. You are my miracle baby, my son-shine, and my world. You helped push me to be a better person, as well as a better mother. Mommy loves you unconditionally, and I hope you know that.

To my aunts Von, Pam, and uncle Andre, thank you for all the love and support you two have for me. Thank you for being there when you could be. I love you all to the moon and back!

Lastly, to my husband Kevin, words could not express the love I have for you. I would have never thought I would meet, or have a husband like you. Thank you for always being my backbone, and pushing me to keep striving. You are my yin to my yang. You are one of the best husbands a woman could ever ask for. Thanks for the love and support you’ve always gave babe

Acknowledgements

It is a genuine pleasure to express my deep sense of thanks and gratitude to all of the faculty and staff at South University for helping, and leading me the way to success. They have lifted me up when I was down and out. Your timely advice, meticulous scrutiny, scholarly advice, and scientific approaches has helped me to a great very great extent to accomplish this task. Those faculty and staff that I would like to recognize are XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX. I am truly thankful to have some of you to help me pray in trying times, and all of you to help me stay positive when I felt like giving up. I am lucky to have known you all, and I appreciate everything.

List of Tables

Table 1: Pearson Correlation Analysis………………………………………………………………………………52

List of Figures

Figure 1: The SWOT Metrix …………………………………………………………………………………………..34

Figure 2: Overview of Age Groups…………………………………………………………………………………..38

Figure 3: Amount of Supervisors and Managers ………………………………………………………………..39

Table of Contents Abstract i Dedication ii Acknowledgements iii List of Tables iv List of Figures v Chapter 1 – Introduction 1 Purpose of the Study 2 Statement of the Problem 2 Theoretical Framework 3 Definitions 3 Research Questions and Hypotheses 4 Scope of the Study 8 Delimitations: 8 Limitations: 8 Assumptions, Risks and Biases 9 Significance of the Study 9 Summary 10 Chapter 2 – Literature Review 11 Definition of Strategic Management 12 The strategy statements 13 Importance of vision and mission statements 13 Conceptual Framework 14 Strategic Decisions in Strategic Management 22 Characteristics and Features of Strategic Decisions in Strategic Management 23 Business Policy 25 Features of a Good Business Policy 25 Importance of Business Policies 26 SWOT Analysis 27 Factors of the SWOT Analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) 27 Advantages of SWOT Analysis 29 Limitations of SWOT Analysis 31 Competitor Analysis 32 Reasons for Doing a Competitor Analysis 32 Strategic Leadership 34 Summary 35 Chapter 3 – Methodology 36 Research Design 36 Population and Sample 37 Instrumentation 39 Structured Interviews 41 Research Procedures 41 Data Analysis 42 Protection of Human Rights 43 Delimitations and Limitations 44 Assumptions, Risks and Biases 44 Significance of the Study 45 Summary 46 Chapter 4 – Results 47 Purpose of the Study 47 Questions and Hypotheses 47 Initial Data Examination 49 Statistical Analysis 49 Results Summary 54 Chapter 5 – Discussion 55 Need for Study on Employee Motivation, Performance, and Job Satisfaction Concerning Strategic Management Leadership Traits 55 Importance of Employee Motivation in an Organization 56 Limitations of Employee Performance and Limitation despite Excellent Strategic Management and Leadership Traits 56 Limitations and Further Scope of the Study 57 Summary of the Study 59 References 61 Appendices 66 Appendix A: Informed Consent Form for Participants 67 Appendix B: Screening Questionnaire for Participants 68 Appendix C: Permission from Michelin’s HR Manager 69 Appendix D: Message Group Board Post 71 Appendix E: IWPQ Permission 72 Appendix F: MLQ Permission 75 Appendix G: MLQ 76 Appendix H: Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) 78 Appendix I: Sample Size Calculator 81 Appendix J: SurveyMonkey 82 Appendix K: Age Rang and Sex of Managers and Supervisors 83

THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL BUS8115 – BUS8120 i

THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL BUS8115 – BUS8120 26

Chapter 1 – Introduction

The current research study will focus on the impacts of strategic management attributes on employee performance, motivation and, job satisfaction. There are different management styles such as autocratic style, participative style, teamwork management style, participatory management style, task-oriented style, and people-oriented style that management use to influence their followers towards a particular organizational goal. Some of the approaches are transformational, Laissez-Faire, democratic, transactional and autocratic management. Business cultures influence extensively the type of strategic management styles used in organizations. Many scholars in organizational behavior and management have published articles on how management styles affect employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. Most researchers have found out that the type of management style utilized in organizations affects employees. Research by Al Khajeh (2018) to determine the role of management on performance found out that management approaches affect organizational performance. Also, researchers have found that transformational and transactional management styles have varying impacts on performance, employee motivation, and job satisfaction (Choi et al., 2017). Employees work well under some management styles because their leaders appreciate their contributions at their workplace. In other situations, employees may feel encouraged when leaders reward their top performances. Comment by Bob Widner: Citation?

​ Unlike previous studies focused on management style in general, this research study will focus on management traits. In Manufacturing, senior stakeholders distinguish each of the management styles by characteristics that have a significant impact on employee performance. People characterize management by rewarding and punishing instances, while management is by inspiration and follower empowerment (Choi et al., 2017, Lan et al., 2019). There is a need to narrow down to the particular traits to understand their impacts on employees. The study is crucial in the field of organizational management and behaviors in many ways. The study's findings can help leaders find a proper balance of management traits to create a motivated, performing, and satisfied workforce. Also, the study's outcomes may help leaders and organizations to incorporate appropriate management styles within their operations. Thus, the study will focus on management traits and how they impact performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. The management traits that the study will focus on are visionary, delegation, and reward and punishment. Comment by Bob Widner: Consider citing a few exemplary studies. Comment by Bob Widner: Next sentence might present an operational definition of "management traits" for the reader. Comment by Bob Widner: Consider providing a list of those traits in parentheses. Comment by Bob Widner: Are you referencing your dissertation? Comment by Bob Widner: This is a strong subjective assessment. As researchers we might want to avoid the use of such language. Comment by Bob Widner: Do you think these "management traits" might vary as a function of leadership style? Comment by Bob Widner: Why are you focusing on these traits? Your reader will likely want to know this.

Purpose of the Study Comment by Bob Widner: Purpose Statement (which should be the first sentence in this section) should be quite similar to your Problem Statement with the added information of the research design that is being used and the general geographical location from which the participants will be recruited. Keep in mind that you target population is a subset of your population and is usually differentiated from it by stating a geographical location (e.g., South Eastern part of the USA).

The purpose of the study is to shift overemphasis on management styles to management traits. The second purpose is to inform organizations against restricting strategic management to one management style. In other words, the study will intend to help a visionary leader to use reward and punishment rather than inspiration only. While visionary is a trait for a traditional leader and reward and punishment a character of a transactional leader, leaders can merge them to create a hybrid management style based on how they complement each other. Comment by Bob Widner: Are not these two intertwined? Can we separate them out and focus just on "management traits"? Comment by Bob Widner: How will this be accomplished if your study focuses on "management traits"? Comment by Bob Widner: Your reader might be somewhat confused here. Are you focusing on traits or leadership styles? Are you suggesting that we can create a "new" leadership style by mixing and matching traits?

Statement of the Problem Comment by Bob Widner: Remember that your Problem Statement needs to have all of the variables that you are interested in using and that are represented in your RQs. Comment by Bob Widner: Remember that your Problem Statement needs to have all of the variables that you are interested in using and that are represented in your RQs. If we list the variables represented in your RQs we see that they are not part of your Problem Statement: 1. transformational management 2. employee motivation 3. job performance 4. rewards 5. punishments 6. delegation 7. visionary management I should add that there are too many variables being noted in the RQs.

There is a literature gap to address management traits and their impacts on performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. Most scholarly work provides comprehensive information on management styles and their effects on various organizational aspects (Fiaz et al., 2017). However, few” of the reviewed academic works discuss the concept of management traits. The gap prompts the need for new research that the study will address. The other problem is that while most evidence shows that some management styles negatively affect employees, there is no solution from the literature. Some management styles only suit the organizational culture or goals and not the employees (Choi et al., 2017). Likewise, some management tactics may fit employees and not the organization's long-term goals. Consequently, there is a problem to address these challenges. Assessing the management traits and their impacts may lead to a viable solution on balancing organizational culture and employees’ needs within the management framework. Comment by Bob Widner: Consider citing a few studies that you used to determine this "gap" in the literature. Comment by Bob Widner: Is there anything more recent that you can cite? Comment by Bob Widner: Few" suggests that there are some. Please cite those studies here. Comment by Bob Widner: I may have missed it but I did not see any discussion or inclusion of this in the Introduction. Comment by Bob Widner: Didn't see reference to this in your Purpose Statement.

Theoretical Framework

​ The research will apply the situational management theoretical framework. According to situational management theories, management style should change based on the prevailing circumstances (Thompson & Glasø, 2018). Consequently, the model assumes that there is no one suitable management style that applies to all situations. Moreover, the model recognizes the importance of management having the ability to deal with diverse circumstances. In the research study, the researcher will use the theoretical framework to solve the puzzle of establishing fixed management styles within organizations (Thompson & Glasø, 2018). In the research paper, the researcher will use the theoretical framework to solve the puzzle of establishing fixed management styles within organizations (Thompson & Glasø, 2018). Also, the research study will utilize the theoretical framework to show why management styles are needed in most organizations to meet the need of employees and the goals of organizations. The advanced management style is possible by combining various management traits. Hence, the study will focus on management traits and their impacts on performance, motivation, and job satisfaction. Comment by Bob Widner: Citation? Comment by Bob Widner: Is there a theory that can be used for "management traits"?

DefinitionsT Comment by Bob Widner: Please alphabetize. Comment by Bob Widner: Begin by first informing your reader why you are presenting a list of terms and definitions. Comment by Bob Widner: The majority of terms in this section do not tie to your literature. I would expect to see some operationally defined terms such as "performance", "motivation", "job satisfaction", "management traits"…..

Management: Perspectives from the Front Line has addressed management as a critical organizational capability and intervention in what was clearly an ambitious endeavor: a bold attempt to tackle management from a Strategic management Value Perspective in as comprehensive a way as possible (Veldsman, 2016). Comment by Bob Widner: Please provide at least one citation for each term.

Quantitative  research: is expressed in numbers and graphs. It is used to test or confirm theories and assumptions. This type of research can be used to establish generalizable facts about a topic.

Qualitative research : is presented in words. It is used to understand concepts, thoughts or experiences. This type of research enables you to assemble in-depth insights on topics that are not well understood.

Mixed Method: combines elements of  quantitative research and  qualitative research in order to answer your  research question (George, 2022). 

Research Questions and Hypotheses Comment by Bob Widner: The research questions need to be re-worked so that they reflect the correlational relationship as suggested by the correlation design.

Research Question 1:

· What is the impact of transformational management on employee motivation and job performance? Comment by Bob Widner: The research question is not worded in an appropriate manner. Here is an example of a RQ for a correlational predictive design where we have multiple predictors and one criterion. RQ1: To what extent do satisfaction with pay, satisfaction with promotion, and satisfaction with supervision, predict overall job satisfaction of U.S. Army RNs when controlling for employment status, active duty versus civilian? H01: Satisfaction with pay, satisfaction with promotion, and satisfaction with supervision do not significantly predict overall job satisfaction of U.S. Army RNs when controlling for employment status, active duty versus civilian. H1a: Satisfaction with pay, satisfaction with promotion, satisfaction with supervision significantly predict overall job satisfaction of U.S. Army RNs when controlling for employment status, active duty versus civilian. Comment by Bob Widner: These are two separate constructs and should be examined separately (i.e., separate RQs).

​The question is essential in determining the specific attributes of transformational management that encourage employees and prompt better performance. Transformational management led their teams towards a common goal through inspiration and encouragement (Lan et al., 2019). Management focus on improving the entire group for organizational success. Each employee participates in the decision-making process at the company. Also, transformational management train their followers for higher responsibilities at the organization and use them as partners to achieve organizational objectives (Lan et al., 2019). The research question will help the researcher to narrow down to management -specific attributes and evaluate how they influence employees’ wellness that in turn affects motivation and performance. The study's purpose is to determine how management attributes affect motivation, employee satisfaction, and performance. Therefore, the answer to the question will help to respond to the question.

Hypothesis 1 Null: There are no impacts of transformational management on employee motivation.

Hypothesis 1 Alternate: There are impacts of transformational management on employee motivation.

Hypothesis 1 Null: There are no impacts of transformational management on employee job performance.

Hypothesis 1 Alternate: There are impacts of transformational management on employee job performance.

Research Question 2:

· Do rewards and punishments affect employee’s motivation, performance, and job satisfaction? Comment by Bob Widner: Again, these are three different constructs and should not be included within the same RQ. They should be separated out.

· Some management styles incorporate punishments (right ups, such as no bonuses, granted overtime, and granted incentives, etc.), rewards (such as a raise, extra overtime, promotions, etc.) to control employees. Most literature in organizational behavior focuses much on management styles and fails to narrow down to the specific management traits. Reward and punishment are practiced by transactional management. Top performers such as the ones that efficiently gets the job done, get to work on time, take directions well, and keeping the work flow are rewarded while poor performers are punished. Punishments include receiving lower salaries based on their performances (not making production, or meet their quotas), job dismissal, or receiving inferior positions (such as a supervisor, or manager’s position) with lower pay. Transactional management tend to focus much on individuals rather than a group (Wahyuni et al., 2019; Pishgooie et al., 2018). They are more concerned with the planning and execution processes, and often, rely on the established structures to exert influence on their followers. The research question will help me to delve deeper into management attributes that affect overall employee motivation, performance, and job satisfaction. The response to the question is pivotal in answering the overall research question on the impacts of management attributes on employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction.

Hypothesis 2 Null: Rewards and punishment do not affect employees' performance, and motivation.

Hypothesis 2 Alternate: Rewards and punishment affect employees' performance, and motivation.

Hypothesis 2 Null: Rewards and punishment do not affect employees' performance, and job satisfaction.

Hypothesis 2 Alternate: Rewards and punishment affect employees' performance, and job satisfaction.

Research Question 3:

· Does delegation affect employee motivation, job satisfaction, and performance? Comment by Bob Widner: Same issue that I noted earlier.

Some management styles embrace role delegation while others do not. Delegation is assigning roles to other team members for various reasons. The question aims to create an understanding of how the attribute of rile delegation affect motivation, satisfaction, and performance (Pishgooie et al., 2018). Employees may feel valued when they receive more roles at their workplace in some instances while others may feel demotivated due to increased roles. Either way, delegation will affect motivation, performance, and job satisfaction. Some management styles that embrace delegation are transformational and charismatic. The findings on the question will help to determine how management traits affect employees' wellness. These findings will align study purpose that aims at finding the relationship between management traits and motivation, performance, and job satisfaction.

Hypothesis 3 Null: Delegation does not motivate employees and leads to job satisfaction and better performance.

Hypothesis 3 Alternate: Delegation does motivate employees and leads to job satisfaction and better performance.

Research Question 4:

· What are the impacts of a visionary management on motivation, employee performance, and job satisfaction? Comment by Bob Widner: Same issue that I previously noted.

Visionary management is one with a clear picture of how the future should look. Visionary managers are strategic and influence their followers to undertake bold steps for a better future. The visionary trait is associated with charismatic and transformational management styles (Lan et al., 2019). The question is essential for the study, because it will help in examining how various management traits affect employee performance, motivation, and job satisfaction.

Hypothesis 4 Null: There are no positive impacts of visionary leaders on motivation, and employee performance.

Hypothesis 4 Alternate: There are positive impacts of visionary leaders on motivation, and employee performance.

Hypothesis 4 Null: There are no positive impacts of visionary leaders on employee performance, and job satisfaction.

Hypothesis 4 Alternate: There are positive impacts of visionary leaders on employee pe

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