Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Discuss how advertisers use theories of selective attention to market and sell their products. Choose a specific product and provide examples from either the package or advertising of the pr | Wridemy

Discuss how advertisers use theories of selective attention to market and sell their products. Choose a specific product and provide examples from either the package or advertising of the pr

Discuss how advertisers use theories of selective attention to market and sell their products. Choose a specific product and provide examples from either the package or advertising of the pr

Due Sunday, November 6, 2022, 11:59 PMTime remaining: 2 days 9 hours

Discuss how advertisers use theories of selective attention to market and sell their products. Choose a specific product and provide examples from either the package or advertising of the project that describes what they are doing to focus consumers’ attention on their product. Your discussion should be one page double-spaced in APA format.

Learning objectives: By the end of this presentation you will be able to…

distinguish between the various meanings of “multitasking” and identify the one meaning that requires divided attention.

describe the dual-task paradigm and findings regarding the conditions under which dual-task performance increases; what do these conditions suggest about the reality of “divided attention?” Discuss the distinction between competence and confidence at multitasking.

describe the “task-switching paradigm” and findings regarding the “cost” of task-switching; what do these findings suggest about the reality of “divided attention?”

apply what you’ve learned about multitasking to the use of cell phones in cars and in class.

Divided Attention: Multitasking

Divided Attention: Multitasking

I. Divided Attention & Multitasking: A Paradox?

Divided attention means consciously attending to two things simultaneously. Our ability to “multitask” would seem to suggest that attention can be divided. But research and theories of attention, which we have considered, suggest that attention is not divisible. This is the apparent paradox we must resolve.

Multitasking is variously defined as performing two tasks simultaneously (dual-task), or switching back and forth between tasks (task-switching). Only the former requires divided attention.

Divided Attention: Multitasking

I. Divided Attention & Multitasking: A Paradox?

II. Findings From Research Using the Dual-Task Paradigm

dual-task interference, demonstrated by performance deficits in the component tasks, is thought to be a proof of capacity limitation.

Confidence vs Competence at Multitasking

III. Findings From Research Using the Task-Switching Paradigm

the “cost” of multitasking

IV. The Role of Expertise

In Video Game Practice Optimizes Executive Control Skills In Dual-Task and Task-Switching Situations,” researchers found performance advantages for experienced video gamers compared to non-gamers in both dual-task and task switching paradigms

IV. Applying Lessons Learned

Cell Phone in the Car (is driving simple/automatic?

Cell Phones in the Class (is learning simple/automatic?)

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Learning objectives: By the end of this presentation you will be able to…

describe the cocktail party effect and the dichotic listening task and what they tell us about the nature of and challenges to attention.

identify processes by which we select information according to various information-processing theories; compare and contrast early, attenuation and late filter models and identify problems with each.

describe perceptual load theory, describe the relationships among task complexity, automaticity and perceptual load

explain how perceptual load theory uses task complexity to make sense of findings that supported early and late filter models.

describe the STROOP effect and perceptual load theory’s explanation of it.

Introduction To Attention

Introduction To Attention

I. The Cocktail Party Effect & Dichotic Listening Paradigm Reveal the Nature and Challenge of Attentional Processes

A. Cocktail-Party Effect- being able to focus one's auditory attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, as a partygoer can focus on a single conversation in a noisy room.

Introduction To Attention

I. The Cocktail Party Effect & Dichotic Listening Paradigm Reveal the Nature and Challenge of Attentional Processes

A. Cocktail-Party Effect

B. Dichotic Listening Paradigm (party simulator)

present different stimuli to left and right ear

Participant shadows the attended channel.

Typical Findings: Participant give full reports of content on attended ear; report physical characteristics of but not meaning of content in unattended ear.

Think About It. What do these results tell you about the nature of attention and about the basic challenge of attention?

Introduction To Attention

I. Dichotic Listening Paradigm Reveals the Nature and Challenge of Attentional Processes

A. Cocktail-Party Effect

B. Dichotic Listening Paradigm

C. The Nature & Challenge of Attentional Processing

Attention is Limited

Attention is Selective

Challenge is that selectivity must balance sensitivity to new information with concentration on the task at hand

dichotic listening paradigm gave rise to information-processing theories of attention, which offer various explanations of how this challenge might be met…

Introduction To Attention

I. Dichotic Listening Paradigm Reveals the Nature and Challenge of Attentional Processes

II. Information-Processing Theories of Attention explain how selectivity works…

A. Early Filtering (Broadbent)

 

sensory store (e.g. iconic memory)

filter- information that does not pass through filter is lost

detector- top-down perceptual process

Problem For the Broadbent Model

hearing your name across the room at the cocktail party

Dear Aunt Jane experiment

Broadbent Early Filter Model of Selective Attention

Gray & Wedderburn’s (1995) Dear Aunt Jane experiment

sensory store (e.g. iconic memory)

filter- information that does not pass through filter is lost

detector- top-down perceptual process

Problems

cocktail-party effect

Dear Aunt Jane experiment

Why are these finding a problem for the

Broadbent Model?

Broadbent Early Filter Model of Selective Attention

Introduction To Attention

I. Dichotic Listening Paradigm Reveals the Nature and Challenge of Attentional Processes

II. Information-Processing Theories of Attention explain how selectivity works…

A. Early Filtering (Broadbent)

B. Attenuation (Treisman)

 

attenuator replaces early filter

all messages are processed to the extent necessary to identify the attended message

unattended message is attenuated and unlikely to receive high-level processing

attenuated words might still receive recognition if they have a low threshold (own name has lowest threshold). This accounts for the cocktail party effect.

Problem For Attenuation Model

sometimes info gets filtered after high-level processing (ie after interpretation) …

Treisman’s Attenuation Model of Selective Attention

Mackay (1973) throwing stones experiment

Attend Here

“They were throwing stones at the bank.”

“river” or “money”

(biasing words)

Test:

Which of the following is closest in meaning to the attended sentence?

“They threw stones toward the side of the river yesterday.”

“They threw stones at the savings and loan building yesterday.”

Results:

The meaning of the biasing word affected participants’ choice

Participants were unaware of the presentation of the biasing words (had been filtered)

Introduction To Attention

I. Dichotic Listening Paradigm Reveals the Nature and Challenge of Attentional Processes

II. Information-Processing Theories of Attention explain how selectivity works…

A. Early Filtering (Broadbent)

B. Attenuation (Treisman)

C. Late Filtering (Deutsch & Deutsch)

filters out information AFTER high-level processing

can account for throwing stones (participants unaware of unattended message that, nonetheless, influenced their interpretation)

so, which is which? Early or Late filtering?

Deutsch & Deutsch’s Late Filter Model of Selective Attention

Introduction To Attention

I. Dichotic Listening Paradigm Reveals the Nature and Challenge of Attentional Processes

II. Information-Processing Theories of Attention explain how selectivity works…

A. Early Filtering (Broadbent)

B. Attenuation (Treisman)

C. Late Filtering (Deutsch & Deutsch)

D. Perceptual Load Theory (Lavie)

Theory Described…

Perceptual Load Theory

attention has limited capacity.

attention involuntarily processes all information, up to capacity

complex/unlearned tasks use more capacity than do simple/habituated tasks (high vs low perceptual load)

Introduction To Attention

I. Dichotic Listening Paradigm Reveals the Nature and Challenge of Attentional Processes

II. Information-Processing Theories of Attention explain how selectivity works…

A. Early Filtering (Broadbent)

B. Attenuation (Treisman)

C. Late Filtering (Deutsch & Deutsch)

D. Perceptual Load Theory (Lavie)

theory described

theory may resolve early vs late filter debate

Predictions:

complex tasks exhaust capacity; unattended information will be lost (as if there were an early selection filter).

simple tasks leave spare capacity; task-irrelevant information will be processed (as if there were a late selection filter)…

Results:

Compared to nondistracted (a) distracted participants (b) were less influenced by irrelevant image (dog) when task was complex (MKZ ) than when simple (OOOs).

Perceptual Load Theory

Introduction To Attention

I. Dichotic Listening Paradigm Reveals the Nature and Challenge of Attentional Processes

II. Information-Processing Theories of Attention explain how selectivity works…

A. Early Filtering (Broadbent)

B. Attenuation (Treisman)

C. Late Filtering (Deutsch & Deutsch)

D. Perceptual Load Theory (Lavie)

theory described

theory may resolve early vs late filter debate

theory offers an explanation of STROOP effect…

Explaining the STROOP effect:

both attended (color naming) and unattended (reading) tasks are processed.

simple/habituated response (reading) competes with complex/unlearned response (color naming).

Perceptual Load Theory

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Learning objectives: By the end of this presentation you will be able to…

compare feature to conjunctive searches and the typical outcomes of these visual search tasks

describe stages of Treisman’s feature integration theory and interpret outcomes of visual search tasks in terms of the theory; define “binding.”

define inattention blindness, describe three forms of it, and interpret inattention blindness in terms of feature integration theory.

Attention Binds: Inattention Blindness

Attention Binds: Inattention Blindness

I. Visual Search Tasks

A. Feature search

find the target by looking for a single feature.

what is the effect of increasing the number of other objects and what does this mean?

Attention Binds: Inattention Blindness

I. Visual Search Tasks

A. Feature search

B. Conjunctive search

find the target that combines two or more features (e.g. color and orientation)

what is the effect of increasing the number of objects and what does this mean?

Find the Blue Letter

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Find the Blue Letter`

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Find the Blue L

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Find the Blue L

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one last example: conjunction search x number of objects

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I. Visual Search Tasks

A. Feature Search

B. Conjunction Search

C. Findings

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600

800

1000

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Number of Items

RT

Conjunction

Feature

Attention Binds: Inattention Blindness

I. Visual Search Tasks

II. Treisman’s Feature Integration Theory

Steps in Treisman’s feature integration theory. Objects are analyzed into their features in the preattentive stage, and then the features are combined later with the aid of attention.

Attention Binds: Inattention Blindness

Attention Binds: Inattention Blindness

I. Visual Search Tasks

II. Treisman’s Feature Integration Theory

III. Inattention Blindness

A. Examples

Example 1

The next video is a test of the limits of your conscious attention. You’ll see people in white shirts passing a basketball along with people in black shirts passing a basketball. Pay close attention and see if you can keep track of how many passes are made by the white shirts.

How many times did the white shirts pass the ball?

Ans: 14

Oh, and Did You Happen to Notice the…

Attention Binds: Inattention Blindness

I. Visual Search Tasks

II. Treisman’s Feature Integration Theory

III. Inattention Blindness

A. Examples

Example 2: Change Blindness

Attention Binds: Inattention Blindness

I. Visual Search Tasks

II. Treisman’s Feature Integration Theory

III. Inattention Blindness

A. Examples

B. Explained

Attention Binds: Inattention Blindness

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Kurt Holzhausen

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