01 Jan Answer the three discussion questions in the google doc. for a course called Individual Family & Community. Each question should be answered in a minimum of 8 sentences.DiscussionQuestions.
Answer the three discussion questions in the google doc. for a course called Individual Family & Community.
Each question should be answered in a minimum of 8 sentences.
Groups to choose from:
Native Americans (2), African Americans (3), Mexicans (4), Mormon Americans (5), Chinese Americans (6), Japanese Americans (7), Puerto Ricans (8), Asian Indians (9), Cuban Americans (10), Arab Americans (11), & Hawaiian Americans (12). *Each number corresponds to the group’s chapter number*
Cuisine is an important factor in many ethnic families. Choose one group from the text that you have not focused on for a discussion question before. Research their cuisine. Include information on meal practices (such as family dinners, customs such as eating with chopsticks, etc), foods that are common within their culture, distinguishing meal preparation, etc.
Clothing is included in the description of culture within different groups. Choose a group from the text that you have not researched for other discussion questions. Research their clothing and wardrobe. Describe the types of clothing that are common in the ethnic group that you have selected. How does clothing impact or connect to their culture? Have there been changes in their culture as it relates to clothing selection in recent decades. Explain.
Music, art, and dance are included in culture. Research music, art, and/or dance in one of the groups from the text. Explain what you have learned. What types or music, art, and dance are popular within that group? How does music, art, and dance impact those who identify as a member of that group? Explain
Postings will be evaluated on the following:
Original Posting (15 points):
· Mentions at least one specific point from readings or lectures.
· Correct Spelling and Grammar
· Length of posting is a minimum of 8 complete sentences (2 paragraphs).
• Proper use of grammar, sentence structure, and correct spelling is required.
• Be clear and concise. Explain your ideas entirely but get to the point quickly.
• It is not acceptable for you to present work or ideas of others as your own. If you quote from a source, use quotation marks, and provide the original author’s name and the work from which this quotation is taken. If you choose to use direct quotes, give credit to the original author by properly citing using APA format.
• Do not use acronyms – for example, ROTFL (rolling on the floor laughing), IDK (I don’t know), SMH (Shaking my head), etc.
CUBAN AMERICAN FAMILIES
■ Santeria – an African Cuban religious and folk-healing method ■ Espiritismo – another faith healing method led by a medium or spiritual counselor, who
helps clients through an exorcism of spirits ■ Lineality – accountability is defined by the social structure and relationships are
hierarchically ordered ■ Familialism – belief in and valuing of the nuclear and extended family systems and
members – Center of Latino families
■ Enmeshment – involvement among Cuban family members (viewed as positive and negative)
■ Personalismo – a concern for personal dignity, combined with a personal, rather than conceptual, approach to social relationships,
■ Currently the largest ethnic-minority group in U.S.
■ 3 main groups are: – Mexican Americans – 66.9% – Cuban – 3.7% – Puerto Ricans 8.6%
■ Many other nationalities from central and south America have arrived in the last few decades. 20.8%
■ Geographically, Cubans have not had to travel far to get to the U.S. – Emotionally their journey has been long and arduous
■ Migration has meant giving up family, friends, property, a way of being, a lifestyle – and their paradise island
■ Today about 1 million Cuban Americans compromise the 3rd largest and most prosperous group of people of Latino decent living in the United States.
– Despite sharing a common language, Latino heritage, and Catholic ideology, Cubans are also distinct from other Latinos in terms of their history, migration, their geographic clustering, and their demographic characteristics.
– Cuban culture is a blend of Spanish, African, and Amerindian cultural patterns.
The Immigration Experience ■ Cuban migration to the U.S. is relatively recent and is
primarily politically motivated.
■ After the Spanish- American War, U.S. occupied Cuba (assumed control for a few years)
– 1902 Cuba was technically independent – U.S. still had considerable influence in Cuba
politically and economically for the next 50 years.
■ Short distance from the United States and well established ties to U.S. economy
■ Estimated that 10% of Cuba’s population came to the U.S. between 1959-1980
■ Mostly in Key West and Tampa Florida
■ Fidel Castro’s rise to power and his declaration in 1961 that his regime would follow Marxist-Leninist ideology stimulated the sudden exodus of thousands of Cubans.
■ Five Waves of immigration – 1st wave “the golden exiles”: social, economic, and political elite – Jan
1959 – Oct. 1962 (215,000) – 2nd wave – numbers greatly reduced; mostly middle class – 1962- 1965 – 3rd wave – 1965 U.S and Cuba agreed to two daily “freedom flights”;
275,000-340,000 largely working class until 1973 – 4th wave – early 1980 – not greeted warmly by American public;
125,000 – 5th wave- 1985-1992; about 6000; took hazardous trips over the seas
from Cuba to Florida
■ 1st 3 waves received more of a generous welcome
– Refugee program spent 1.5 billion on settling them
– Special scholarships provided by the federal government
– Granted permanent legal status
– Univ. of Miami created course to prepare Cuban doctors for licensing exams/provided loans
■ Refugee Act of 1980 – Cubans would have to prove political or religious persecution
Traditional and Emerging Family Systems ■ The Cuban value or familialism makes the family the most important social unit in
■ Although Cubans tend to be actively involved with the family, extended families do not necessarily live in the same household, but do usually live nearby.
■ The Cuban family, characterized by loyalty and unity, includes: – Nuclear family – Extended family – Fictive kin – Compadres
Household Size & Composition
■ Cuban Americans tend to live in two-parent nuclear family households (norm since the 1930’s)
■ The majority live in married couple families (76.1%), with about 19% living in female headed households.
■ Tend to have small families (2.81 persons per household)
■ Uncharacteristically (Catholic and Latino culture) low fertility rates – Lower rate than all Hispanic subgroups and lower than non-Hispanic Whites – Families and children very well planned and thought out
The Socialization of Children
■ Changed with migration to the U.S. ■ The need and desire for mothers to work and more dual earner household has led to
children being more independent. – Children are still often pampered despite busy work schedules, mothers
manage to do a lot such as cooking, cleaning, and other chores that children are capable of doing?
■ Gender differences in traditional Cuban families – Boys are waited on by their mothers and other women within the family; as
they grow they are given more freedom – Girls are overprotected; have strict curfews, and are discouraged from going
away to school
Quinceanera ■ Many girls are introduced to society through a
quinceanera on their 15th birthday. – A traditional party that can as extravagant
as a wedding – Consists of couples, including the birthday
girl, that dress formally and have an opening choreographed dance
– Friends and family join the festivities ■ Music ■ Dance ■ Lots of food!
■ Despite years of living in the U.S. some Cuban families still expect children to live in the parental home until they get married.
– Adult children may make financial contributions to the household but it is not necessarily expected.
■ How children are socialized depends on a number of factors: – Parents level of acculturation – Parents level of education – Socioeconomic status – Where they live regionally
■ Children growing up the Miami area have more exposure to Cuban traditions and culture because of the density of the Cuban community there.
■ No matter where they live, speaking Spanish and having pride in being Cuban are encouraged
■ Through traditions have relaxed somewhat, female virginity is still valued and ideal among Cuban American families.
– Young women traditionally are never left alone with a man in public or private unless they are married.
■ Strict rules against sexual activity in adolescents
■ Although many Cubans identify as Catholic, as a whole they are not against contraception
Marriage ■ Average age of first marriage – 24 for men and 22
for women ■ Likely to marry ■ Marriage and gender roles among Cuban
Americans vary according to socioeconomic status, level of acculturation, stage of migrations, and religion.
■ Similar to other Latino groups machismo and marianismo are present in marital relationships
■ The image of a macho man is not as embraced by more recent generations of Cuban Americans
■ Younger couples seem to be moving to more egalitarian relationships.
and the Family
■ Cuban families have become less traditional with regard to work and family relationships.
■ Higher rates of employment for women in recent decades
– Achieved greater equality and more decision-making authority in families.
– Domestic help from husbands to include child care and grocery shopping
■ History of lack of employment for men who migrated to the U.S. in the past, however the work situation has improved
– 73.3 % are employed full time; lower rates of unemployment (5.2 %) than Cuban women
■ Still experience some occupational differences
■ Of the largest Latino groups in the U.S., Cuban Americans have the highest level of income.
– Cuban women are less likely to wok in managerial positions or professional jobs than in specialty and technical sales & administrative jobs
– Cuban men are likely to work in precision production, craft, and repair
– Both men and women work in service occupations
Life Cycle Transitions
■ Birth Rates – lowest among Cuban women (tend to be more educated and marry later in life)
■ Divorce rate has increased in recent decades
■ Greater proportion of elderly in Cuban population
■ Older adults are more likely to depend on government (Social Security) or retirement resources rather than extended family for support
■ Elderly are less likely to seek medical care (language and cultural differences)
Family Strengths and Challenges
Strengths ■ Varying immigration histories have contributed to major
educational, occupational, and economic differences among the three Hispanic subgroups.
– On average Cubans are better off among Hispanic subgroups
■ Many Cubans arrived in American with their entire families – adding to emotional support but their population has a higher proportion of middle aged and older adults
■ Close family relationships
■ Capacity to adapt to new environments
■ Religion and spirituality
■ Sense of pride in heritage
Challenges ■ Rapid rate of change has caused
dislocations for those who have adapted too quickly
■ Cultural is threatened by mainstream culture
■ Language barriers ■ Varying levels of acculturation based
on family experiences (waves of immigration)
Misconceptions and Stereotypes
■ Sense of “specialness” – May stem from the fusion of European, African, and indigenous cultures – Often perceived as arrogance and grandiosity – Clannish – viewed this way when they are trying to preserve the love for their
culture and traditions ■ Choteo – Humor
– Has been defined as ridiculing or making fun of people, situations, or things which once served as a defensive function in the social reality of Cubans
– Characterized by exaggeration, tis type of humor is a way of making light of serious situations through jokes ■ Can be perceived as insensitive and in appropriate by others
Similarities Among Hispanic Families ■ High levels of familism
■ Emphasizes collective family welfare and requires individuals to defer to family goals and behave according to their role
■ Interpersonal and interdependent relationships
■ Hispanic families tend to live near or with extended family
■ Have frequent interaction with family members
■ Exchange goods and resources
■ Of the ethnic minority groups, Hispanic Americans have the largest portion of family households.
Arab American Families
• The Arab American community originates in several Arabic-speaking countries in the Middle East
• There is not one family type but several • Based on different historical periods of
migration, diverse socioeconomic levels, and varying religious beliefs
• They do however share certain cultural, historical, linguistic, and social features
• Religion plays a key role in Middle Eastern culture and serves as an important social boundary, across which marriage is difficult.
• Skin color and language are not as strong determining factors as religious affiliation.
• Churches and mosques established by Arab American communities remain major centers of organization and socialization (for both Christian and Muslim groups)
• Social values other than religion that organize Arabs include ideology of the extended patrilineal family, the village, and national or regional affiliation.
• Patrilineality – the father’s line of descent
• Kinship and marriage are of primary importance in the system of chain migration, whereby one son in a family immigrates to the U.S. and establishes himself, then brings other members of the family, and so on, until many relatives have settled together.
• Relatives often provide the economic basis for an enterprise or business such as a store.
• The honor of these lineages and families is a strong factor in everyday lives of Arabs in America.
THE IMMIGRATION EXPERIENCE
• The Arab immigration experience can be divided into two major historical periods.
• First commencing around the end of the 19th century
• The second beginning after WWII and continuing today
• Migrants initially entered the U.S. on the East Coast or from Mexico. • Some traveled to states such as WV, Texas, and South Dakota and later to California
• Early immigration – primarily peasants from small villages; Primarily worked in agriculture and had few skills that were marketable; many became peddlers or owners of small stores
TRADITIONAL AND EMERGING FAMILY SYSTEMS
• Understanding the Arab family as the basic unit of social organization is crucial to understanding the values of Arab Americans.
• As a vehicle for migration and socialization, the family cushions the economic and emotional difficulties of adjustment to a new country.
• The family’s reputation is dominant in the training of the individual who thinks of the family first (and then of himself/herself).
• The family provides protection, emotional and economic support, and identity. • Ideally the family is large and extended (grandparents and other relatives close by)
• More recently Arab immigrants are not in close proximity to other family
HOUSEHOLD SIZE AND COMPOSITION
• A small portion of Arab American households have one or two people
• Large families are only slightly more prevalent among those born in the Middle East than Among American- born Arabs.
• Large families are desired • Household composition may be extended or nuclear • Even in a nuclear family, extended family relationships
continue to be significant
• After marriage, young couple may try to live near or sometimes in the residence of their fathers or brothers (especially in new immigrant communities)
• Women often want to live near their male patrilineal relatives
• Tradition includes marriage of first and second cousins
• Structurally, conjugal relationships (relationships through marriage), are not as close as consanguineal relationships (through blood).
• Children help connect in-laws and must be respectful to relatives on both the mother’s and father’s side of the family, but particularly the father’s side (patrilineal authority).
• Socialization into large family networks may be understood by many mainstream Americans who come from such a tradition, such as Italian Americans and African Americans.
• For those raised in a nuclear family, extended family relationships may be difficult to understand.
• In marriage, one becomes deeply involved with the family of the spouse, and because families are extensive and relationships intensive, much of the couple’s time, emotion, energy, and even money is expected to be spent on the family.
• Nuclear families – most important relationships husband and wife; independence is expected
• Large families – husband/wife unit is competing with other relationships and see the nuclear family as less independent.
• Many cross-cultural marriages do not survive the different role expectations
• Arab Americans marry outside the culture or increase their wealth, they may move far away, and family ties may weaken.
• Settlement in a new country can be difficult for large and extended families. This is particularly true for poor families who may have to crowd into a small house.
THE SOCIALIZATION OF CHILDREN
• In Arab American families, children are valued and given a great deal of attention, but they are expected to respect their parents.
• Young children- given lots of attention from parents; cared for by many extended family members who have the authority to praise and discipline them
• Boys are considered more of a blessing than girls; Sons more opportunities and emphasis on education
• Adolescents- • Girls expected to be modest and help around the house
• Boys expected to help fathers in the family business and are generally allowed more freedom
• The traditional lines of authority in the Arab American family are patriarchal, favoring males over females and parents over children.
• Not all families follow this tradition today
• Arab American second-generation children may resent the pressure their parents use to make them conform to their standards.
• Generation gap is often wider in the U.S. than Middle East.
• Concept of leisure differs between parents and children. • Arab parents born abroad spend time with friends and relatives, however Arab
American teens may want to attend activities, movies, sporting events, etc.
• Marriage in the Arab American community is highly endogamous, favoring marriage between cousins and people within the same religion, village, or national community.
• Marriages are often arranged or pressure to choose certain mates is exerted by controlling group activities and regulating dating practices.
• Contemporary American dating habits threaten several requirements of the patrilineal family and Arab society causing major concern in the Arab American family.
• Double standard for sons and daughters; Boys are given more privileges
• Arab Americans tend to marry much younger than other Americans • Depends on education and generation • Male’s family initiates the marriage and is responsible for wedding
• Wedding is contracted and witnessed by men • Among Muslim families, a sum of money may be paid by the groom’s family to
the family of the bride
• Women retain rights to their property and inheritances after marriage though some are pressured to give it to their husbands
WORK RELATIONSHIPS AND FAMILY
• The family has been a critical unit for many Arab American immigrants.
• During the early wave of immigration, many stores were created and run by families.
• Women and children played an important role in the enterprise. • A high percentage of Arab Americans are employed in entrepreneurial
• More likely to be self employed, less likely to work for local government, and much more likely to be in managerial and professional specialty occupations than are other ethnic groups
• Unemployment rate for Arab Americans born abroad is higher than the U.S. average but lower than the national average for U.S. born Arab Americans.
• Poverty rate is higher than the national average but educational level is higher than the average for the general population.
• Educational levels and unemployment rates reflect the diverse SES levels in Arab American families (Some may have few skills especially in terms language) and others may be in the upper professional classes and have numerous graduate degrees
L I F E C Y C L E T R A N S I T I O N S
• Divorce is discouraged and carries a stigma • Divorce rate is generally low because of the
emphasis on family.
• Traditionally women are left at a disadvantage since children ultimately “belong” to the father’s family.
• Attitudes towards child custody are changing. • Single parenthood is considered abnormal unless
the parent is a widow or widower.
• Females often marry younger than males posing a dilemma for young women who aspire to higher education.
• Arab American women twice as likely as Arab- born women to be single after age 15.
• Expansive network of family.
• Protection, security, and indulgence of children
• Education and assistance from family during migration
• Closeness of family relationships
• Emphasis on family and community rather than the individual is different than dominant culture of U.S.
• Marriage within the group
• Restrictions on dating
• Gender roles (changes causing strain within families)
FAMILY STRENGTHS AND CHALLENGES
MISCONCEPTIONS AND STEREOTYPES
• Patrilineal rules give older generations power over younger generations, and men privileges over women (not just about the father) however women have more power than perceived by Westerners (power is in their ability to influence relationships).
• Loyalty to family rather than the individual, customs of having a big family may be strange to others.
• Language is often a barrier between members of different cultures.
Hawaiian American Families Chapter 12
• The history of Hawaiian Islands is embedded in culture, values, beliefs, and practices that help define and characterize the Native Hawaiian family today. • People first cam to the Hawaiian Island around A.D. 700. Coming in search of
new land a new a home, they brought with them pigs, dogs, fowl, and various plants such as the taro and coconut. • People referred to as Polynesian by early European explorers, meaning
“people of the many islands”
• Papahanaumoku – Earth mother • Wakea – Sky father • Genealogy – Hawaiian
genealogy is from the land; therefore their relationship to the land is familial (Children of mother earth)
• Mana – spiritual force and power shared by all living things
• The Hawaiian initial contact with the Western world was on January 18, 1778. • Captain James Cook, a British sea captain,
arrived at the Hawaiian Island with his crew and two ships.
• Hawaiians thought the captain was Lomo, the God of agriculture, but within a year it became clear that he and his crew were using resources without replenishing them.
• About 300,000 Natives upon arrival, population dropped by 90% within 100 years. • High rates of diseases from foreigners to which
natives had no immunity. • Tuberculosis, small pox, gonorrhea, and other
diseases brought death and infertility.
• Conflict between the cultures began to rise.
Colonization, Statehood, & Cultural Renewal • Like Native Americans, Aboriginal Hawaiians are not immigrants to
the United States but are indigenous to the land.
• Hawaii and its people were recognized by the United States and the world as a sovereign nation.
• 1883 – Queen Lili’uokalani, last queen of Hawaii, attempted to return Hawaii to Hawaiian people by writing a new constitution, but the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown by American businessmen and government officials. • Hawaiian flag removed and American flag raised
• 1898 – Hawaii becomes U.S. territory • 1959 – Hawaii becomes 50th state
Traditional and Emerging Family Systems
• From ethnic perspective, modern Hawaiian American families are a very heterogeneous group.
• Cross cultural marriages, a continuous influx of visitors and immigrants, and children born to parents of diverse ethnic backgrounds have all transformed identity of Native Hawaiians.
• While their ancestors were unified politically, religiously, socially, and culturally, contemporary Native Hawaiian families are highly differentiated in religion, education, occupation, politics – and even in their claims to Hawaiian identity.
• In general, Polynesian family systems, including Native Hawaiian families, are very different from the nuclear family systems typical European American societies. • Multiple caretaking or parenting • Sharing the care of children within the extended family • Early indulgence of infants, followed by distinct and rapid initiation into a
system of sibling caretaking.
Household Size and Composition
• The census reveals that Native American Hawaiians and part Hawaiians make up about 12.5% of the population in Hawaii. Other resources put the number at closer to 19%. • Caucasians – 33.4% • Japanese – 22.3% • Filipinos – 15.2% • Chinese – 6.2% • Others – 10.4%
• Average household size for Native Hawaiians – 3.7 • Larger than all other ethnic groups in Hawaii except Filipinos (4.3) • Children account for the higher average household
• Native Hawaiian families are overrepresented in: • Households with 4, 5, 6, and 7 or more people • Married couples with their own children • Groups of families with female-headed households. • Female-headed households with their own children under 18 years
old • Households on public assistance • Households with no telephones (the norm now) • Owner-occupied housing units below the poverty level.
Socialization of Children
• Contemporary Hawaiian Americans measure accomplishments by the efficient and effective use of time.
• The concept of family time brings into focus the importance of quality time with children.
• The Hawaiian family acknowledges the belief that the mind and body, along with nature, influence the perception of time.
• Children socialized to be laid back (Hawaiian families criticized for this)
• Much of Hawaiian culture has been lost to acculturation (adapting to majority culture)
Intimate Relationships • Hawaiian language reflects the importance
of social and interpersonal relationships extended far beyond the immediate biological family.
• Love, affection, and caring are very much an open part of the ‘
Our website has a team of professional writers who can help you write any of your homework. They will write your papers from scratch. We also have a team of editors just to make sure all papers are of HIGH QUALITY & PLAGIARISM FREE. To make an Order you only need to click Ask A Question and we will direct you to our Order Page at WriteDemy. Then fill Our Order Form with all your assignment instructions. Select your deadline and pay for your paper. You will get it few hours before your set deadline.