Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Marriage and the Family All writing assignments, discussions, tests, examinations, and projects must be created in a narrative format.?Bullet points and lists are unacceptable unless the | Wridemy

Marriage and the Family All writing assignments, discussions, tests, examinations, and projects must be created in a narrative format.?Bullet points and lists are unacceptable unless the

Marriage and the Family

All writing assignments, discussions, tests, examinations, and projects must be created in a narrative format. Bullet points and lists are unacceptable unless the bullet points and lists are followed by an extensive detailed description or explanation that follows the narrative format – at least a paragraph (6 sentences). 

This week you are required to write Literature Reviews. 

  1. Find, scholarly articles on the topic provided.
  2. Read the articles 
  3. Provide a description of the article
  4. Write a summary, and 
  5. In the week 4 assignment write the purpose of the article. 
  6. In addition, you must create your literature review in APA format and remember to include the APA in-text citations and references. There is information at the end of the directions that may help you with this assignment.



Gender differences are challenging and evoke many feelings based on one’s values, beliefs, culture, and societal acceptance. 

Create 2 Literature Reviews on Gender Differences. Use scholarly articles to create these reviews.

Each literature review must include the following items:

1. Summarize the first article – include the title of the articles. Write 1 paragraph - 12.5 points

2. Summarize the second article – include the title of the articles. Write 1 paragraph - 12.5 points

3. In 1 paragraph describe the purpose of the first article – 12.5 points

4. In 1 paragraph describe the purpose of the second article – 12.5 points

5. You must have an APA citation and references - How to write an APA citation is located in the 'Start Here"' folder - 50 points for both reviews


  1. Find scholarly articles on the topic (this is the literature you will review)
  2. Summary each article and include the title of the articles. Write 1 paragraph 
  3. Tell the purpose of the article used in each review. Write 1 paragraph
  4. Create APA citations
  5. Create APA references 

Course Materials: Lamanna, Mary Ann and Agnes Riedmann. Marriages and Families, 13th ed. Cengage, 2018.ISBN: 978-128573697-6 



These theories attempt to explain the behavioral differences between men and women.

Psychodynamic theory

Basic ideas:

· Freud argued that “anatomy is destiny”.

· Boys identify with their father to resolve the Oedipus complex and to reduce their castration anxiety.

· Girls identify with their mother to resolve the Electra complex and reduce their penis envy.

· Gender identification leads to sex-typed behavior.

Research evidence

· Boys with absent fathers around the Oedipal stage show less sex-typed behavior (Stevenson & Black, 1988; see PIP p.556).

· There is no evidence of castration anxiety or penis envy.

· There is no evidence that threatening fathers produce greater identification (Mussen & Rutherford, 1963; see PIP p.556).


· The psychodynamic theory of gender development was the first attempt to explain the acquisition of gender identity as part of the developmental process.

· However, it emphasizes the influence of the same-sex parent and ignores other family members. It also ignores cognitive factors. Therefore, although it is an interesting theory, there is little evidence.

Social learning theory

Basic idea:

· Bandura (1977a; see PIP p.556) believed that gender is learned through observation and imitation, reward and punishment.

Research evidence

· According to Fagot and Leinbach (1989; see PIP p.557) parents rewarded sex-typed behavior in the under 2's (but were differences evident in the children anyway?).

· Fagot (1985; see PIP p.557) determined that boys were affected more when reinforced by other boys than by teachers or girls.

· According to Perry and Bussey (1979; see PIP p.557), 8- to 9-year-olds copied the activities of the same-sex model.

· Barkley et al. (1977; see PIP p.557) favored the same-sex model in only 18/81 studies.

· Frueh and McGhee (1975; see PIP p.557) showed there was a correlation between the amount of TV watched and sex-typed behavior in 4- to 12-year-olds.

· Williams (1986; see PIP p.557) showed there was more sex-role stereotyping in towns with TV and an increase in stereotyping when a TV was obtained in towns initially without.

RESEARCH ACTIVITY: Content analysis


· This theory recognizes the social context and importance of rewards.

· However, the effects of observation and teachers on gender development are often quite modest. Furthermore, this theory assumes children are passive, and it ignores the role of cognition (schemas) and instead focuses on behaviors rather than general learning. Therefore it can be considered specific and well-researched, but cannot account for all aspects.

Cognitive-developmental theory

Basic ideas, according to Kohlberg (1966; see PIP p.559):

· Gender identity is part of general cognitive development.

· Children attend to same-sex models as a result of acquiring gender identity.

· Gender identity is acquired in stages.

Stage Age Description

Gender identification 2–3.5 years Believe it is possible to change sex

Gender stability 3.5–4.5 years Sex is stable over time, not situations

Gender consistency 4.5–7 years Sex is stable

Research evidence

· Munroe et al. (1984; see PIP p.559) show that children in four cultures show the above stages.

· Slaby and Frey (1975; see PIP p.559) show that children with gender consistency attend more to the same-sex model.

· Fagot and Leinbach (1989; see PIP p.560) shows that children who show identification earlier show increasing sex-typed play between 16and 27 months.

· However, according to Huston (1985; see PIP p.560), sex-typed behavior is present 14 months, before gender stability.

· Martin et al. (2002; see PIP p.560) show that infants under 24 months can discriminate between male and female faces.


· There is support for the stages and effect of identification on sex-typed behavior.

· However, the theory ignores external factors and social context and exaggerates the importance of cognitive factors. Therefore, the theory is useful but cannot account for all findings.

Gender-schema theory

The basic idea, according to Martin and Halverson (1987; see PIP p.560):

· Information about gender is organized into sets of beliefs about the sexes, such as which toys are for girls and which toys are for boys. These schema guide behavior.

Research evidence

· According to Martin and Halverson (1983; see PIP p.561), schema-inconsistent information is distorted to make it more consistent on later recall.

· Bradbard et al. (1986; see PIP p.561) believed that children behaved in accordance with what they had been told about the gender-appropriateness of neutral toys.

· Masters et al. (1979; see PIP p.561)—child's gender labeling influences their choice of toy more than the sex of the adult who is playing with it.

· Serbin et al. (1993; see PIP p.561): boys and girls have equivalent amounts of knowledge in their gender schemas, but boys show more sex-typed behavior.


· Gender-schema theory helps explain the consistency in behavior after schema forms.

· However, it ignores social factors, and the link between schema and behavior may not be strong. Therefore, there is some good evidence but some weak points.

Biological theories

Basic idea:

· Biological differences in chromosomes (X/Y) and hormones (testosterone/estrogen) determine the behavioral differences between boys and girls.

Research evidence

· According to Young et al. (1964; see PIP p.562) testosterone given to pregnant monkeys produced greater aggression in their offspring.

· According to Money and Ehrhardt (1972; see PIP p.562):

· Females exposed to the male sex hormone before birth are more tomboyish.

· A male reared as female after a circumcision accident differed from his twin.

· However, in Diamond's follow-up study (1982; see PIP p.562), the twin wasn't securely male or female in later years.

· Imperato-McGinley et al. (1974; see PIP p.563) showed that late bursts of testosterone caused males to rear as females to change roles, suggesting biological factors override social factors.

· Collaer and Hines (1995; see PIP p.563) reviewed the numerous studies, and argued a good case for three effects of male sex hormones:

· Increased preference for physical activity.

· Increased preference for aggressive behavior.

· Influence on sexual orientation in adolescence.


· Biological factors have been shown to play a role in gender development, in particular, excessive male sex hormones.

· However, biological theories cannot explain the impact of social factors or account for historical changes or cultural differences. Therefore, again there is evidence, but this is only part of the picture.

RESEARCH ACTIVITY: Nature or nurture?

Recent theories
Social cognitive theory

Basic ideas:

· A theory to combine the cognitive and external factors.

· Suggests that gender development is promoted by three modes of influence:

Mode Description

Observational learning Modelling and imitation

Enactive experience Outcomes of actions

Direct tuition Teaching by others

· Children compare their own behavior against their standards (self-regulation).

· They imitate behaviors that will increase their self-efficacy.

Group experiences theory

The basic idea (Maccoby, 1998, 2002; see PIP p.564):

· What children experience in same-sex peer groups affects their gender development.

Research evidence

· According to Martin and Fabes (2001; see PIP p.564), boys who spent more time in such groups showed more sex-typed behavior.


Although fewer than expected, there are some gender differences in behavior. There are also some cultural differences, though the stereotypes of females being nurturant and males being instrumental are very widespread across cultures. Gender differences may be accounted for by a range of biological, social, and cognitive factors.


WEEK 4 Lecture Notes: Understanding Transgender Individuals

What Is Gender Identity Disorder?

Definition From the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), Published by the American Psychiatric Association

Diagnostic Features

There are two components of Gender Identity Disorder, both of which must be present to make the diagnosis. There must be evidence of a strong and persistent cross-gender identification, which is the desire to be, or the insistence that one is of the other sex (Criteria A). This cross-gender identification must not merely be a desire for any perceived cultural advantages of being the other sex. There must also be evidence of persistent discomfort about one's assigned sex or a sense of inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex (Criteria B). The diagnosis is not made if the individual has a concurrent physical intersex condition (e.g., androgen insensitivity syndrome or congenital adrenal hyperplasia) (Criteria C). To make the diagnosis, there must be evidence of clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning (Criteria D). (see below for more on diagnostic criteria)

In boys, the cross-gender identification is manifested by a marked preoccupation with traditionally feminine activities. They may have a preference for dressing in girls' or women's clothes or may improvise such items from available materials when genuine articles are unavailable. Towels, aprons, and scarves are often used to represent long hair or skirts. There is a strong attraction to the stereotypical games and pastimes of girls. They particularly enjoy playing house, drawing pictures of beautiful girls and princesses, and watching television or videos of their favorites. Female-type dolls, such as Barbie, are often their favorite toys, and girls are their preferred playmates.

When playing "house", these boys role-play female figures, most commonly "mother roles", and often are quite preoccupied with female fantasy figures. They avoid rough-and-tumble play and competitive sports and have little interest in cars and trucks or other non-aggressive but stereotypical boy's toys. They may express a wish to be a girl and assert that they will grow up to be a woman. They may insist on sitting to urinate and pretend not to have a penis by pushing it in between their legs. More rarely, boys with Gender Identity Disorder may state that they find their penis or testes disgusting, that they want to remove them, or that they have, or wish to have a vagina.

Girls with Gender Identity Disorder display intense negative reactions to parental expectations or attempts to have them wear dresses or other feminine attire. Some may refuse to attend a school or social events where such clothes may be required. They prefer boys' clothing and short hair, are often misidentified by strangers as boys, and may ask to be called a boy's name. Their fantasy heroes are most often powerful male figures, such as Batman or Superman. These girls prefer boys as playmates, with whom they share interests in contact sports, rough-and-tumble play, and traditional boyhood games. They show little interest in dolls or any form of feminine dress-up or role-play activity. A girl with this disorder may occasionally refuse to urinate in a sitting position. She may claim that she has or will grow a penis and may not want to grow breasts or menstruate. She may assert that she will grow up to be a man. Such girls typically reveal marked cross-gender identification in role-playing, dreams and fantasies.

Adults with Gender Identity Disorder are preoccupied with their wish to live as a member of the other sex. This preoccupation may be manifested as an intense desire to adopt the social role of the other sex or to acquire the physical appearance of the other sex through hormonal or surgical manipulation. Adults with this disorder are uncomfortable being regarded by others as, or functioning in society as, a member of their designated sex. To varying degrees, they adopt the behavior, dress, and mannerisms of the other sex. In private, these individuals may spend much time cross-dressed and working on the appearance of being the other sex. Many attempts to pass in public as the other sex. With cross-dressing and hormonal treatment (and for males, electrolysis), many individuals with this disorder may pass convincingly as the other sex. The sexual activity of these individuals with same-sex partners is generally constrained by the preference that their partners neither see nor touch their genitals. For some males who present later in life, (often the following marriage), sexual activity with a woman is accompanied by the fantasy of being lesbian lovers or that his partner is a man and he is a woman.

In adolescents, the clinical features may resemble either those of children or those of adults, depending on the individual's developmental level, and the criteria should be applied accordingly. In younger adolescents, it may be more difficult to arrive at an accurate diagnosis because of the adolescent's guardedness. This may be increased if the adolescent feels ambivalent about cross-gender identification or feels that it is unacceptable to the family. The adolescent may be referred because the parents or teachers are concerned about social isolation or peer teasing and rejection. In such circumstances, the diagnosis should be reserved for those adolescents who appear quite cross-gender identified in their dress and who engage in behaviors that suggest significant cross-gender identification (e.g., shaving legs in males). Clarifying the diagnosis in children and adolescents may require monitoring over an extended period of time.

Distress or disability in individuals with Gender Identity Disorder is manifested differently across the life cycle. In young children, distress is manifested by the stated unhappiness about their assigned sex. Preoccupation with cross-gender wishes often interferes with ordinary activities. In older children, failure to develop age-appropriate same-sex peer relationships and skills often leads to isolation and distress, and some children may refuse to attend school because of the teasing or pressure to dress in attire stereotypical of their assigned sex. in adolescents and adults, preoccupation with cross-gender wishes often interferes with ordinary activities. Relationship difficulties are common and functioning at school or at work may be impaired.


For sexually mature individuals, the following specifiers may be noted based on the individual's sexual orientation: Sexually Attracted to Males, Sexually Attracted to Females, Sexually Attracted to Both, and Sexually Attracted to Neither. Males with Gender Identity Disorder include substantial proportions with all four specifiers. Virtually all females with Gender Identity Disorder will receive the same specifier-Sexually Attracted to females- although there are exceptional cases involving females who are sexually attracted to Males.

Recording Procedures

The assigned diagnostic code depends on the individual's current age: if the disorder occurs in childhood, the code 302.6 is used; for an adolescent or adult, 302.85 is used.

Associated Features and Disorders

Associated descriptive features and mental disorders.

Many individuals with Gender Identity Disorder become socially isolated. Isolation and ostracism contribute to low self-esteem and may lead to school aversion or dropping out of school. Peer ostracism and teasing are especially common sequelae for boys with the disorder. Boys with Gender Identity Disorder often show marked feminine mannerisms and speech patterns.

The disturbance can be so pervasive that the mental lives of some individuals revolve only around those activities that lessen gender distress. they are often preoccupied with appearance, especially early in the transition to living in the opposite sex role. Relationships with one or both parents also may be seriously impaired. Some males with Gender Identity Disorder resort to self-treatment with hormones and may very rarely perform their own castration or penectomy. especially in urban centers, some males with the disorder may engage in prostitution, which places them at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Suicide attempts and Substance-Related Disorders are commonly associated.

Children with Gender Identity Disorder may manifest coexisting Separation Anxiety Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and symptoms of depression. Adolescents are particularly at risk for depression and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. In adults, anxiety and depressive symptoms may be present. Some adult males have a history of Transvestic Fetishism as well as other paraphilias. Associated Personality Disorders are more common among males than among females being evaluated at adult gender clinics.

Associated laboratory findings.

There is no diagnostic test specific for Gender Identity Disorder. In the presence of a normal physical examination, karyotyping for sex chromosomes and sex hormone assays are usually not indicated. Psychological testing may reveal cross-gender identification of behavior patterns.

Associated physical examination findings and general medical conditions. Individuals with Gender Identity Disorder have normal genitalia (in contrast to the ambiguous genitalia or hypogonadism found in physical intersex conditions). Adolescents and adult males with Gender Identity Disorder may show breast enlargement resulting from hormone ingestion, hair denuding from temporary or permanent epilation and other physical changes as a result of procedures such as rhinoplasty or thyroid cartilage shaving (surgical reduction of the Adam's Apple). Distorted breasts or breast rashes may be seen in females who wear breast binders. Postsurgical complications in genetic females include prominent chest wall scars, and in generic males, vaginal strictures, rectovaginal fistulas, urethral stenoses, and misdirected urinary streams. Adult females with Gender Identity Disorder may have a higher than expected likelihood of polycystic ovarian disease.

Specific Age and Gender Features

Females with Gender Identity Disorders generally experience less ostracism because of cross-gender interests and may suffer less from peer rejection, at least until adolescence. In child clinic samples, there are approximately five boys for each girl referred with this disorder. In adult clinic samples, men outnumber women by about two or three times. In children, the referral bias towards males may partly reflect the greater stigma that gross-gender behavior carries for boys than for girls.


There are no recent epidemiological studies to provide data on the prevalence of Gender Identity Disorder. Data from smaller countries in Europe with access to total population statistics and referrals suggest that roughly 1 per 30,000 adult males and 1 per 100,000 adult females seek sex-reassignment surgery.


For clinically referred children, the onset of cross-gender interests and activities is usually between ages 2 and 4 years, and some parents report that their child has always had cross-gender interests. Only a very small number of children with gender Identity Disorder will continue to have symptoms that meet the criteria for Gender Identity Disorder in later adolescence or adulthood. Typically, children are referred around the time of school entry because of parental concern that what they regarded as a phase does not appear to be passing. Most children with Gender Identity Disorder display less overt cross-gender behaviors with time, parental intervention, or response from peers. By late adolescence or adulthood, about three-quarters of boys who had a childhood history of Gender Identity Disorder report a homosexual or bisexual orientation, but without concurrent Gender Identity Disorder. Most of the remainder report a heterosexual orientation, also without concurrent Gender Identity Disorder. The corresponding percentages for sexual orientation in girls are not known. some adolescents may develop a clearer cross-gender identification and request sex-reassignment surgery or may continue in a chronic course of gender confusion or dysphoria.

In adult males, there are two different courses for the development of Gender Identity Disorder. The first is a continuation of Gender Identity Disorder that had an onset in childhood or early adolescence. These individuals typically present in late adolescence or adulthood. In the other course, the more overt signs of cross-gender identification appear later and more gradually, with a clinical presentation in early to mid-adulthood usually following, but sometimes concurrent with, Transvestic Fetishism. The later-onset group may be more fluctuating in the degree of cross-gender identification, more ambivalent about sex-reassignment surgery, more likely to be sexually attracted to women, and less likely to be satisfied after sex-reassignment surgery. Males with Gender Identity disorder who are sexually attracted to males tend to present in adolescence or early childhood with a lifelong history of gender dysphoria. In contrast, those who are sexually attracted to females, to both males and females, or to neither sex tend to present later and typically have a history of Transvestic Fetishism. If Gender Identity Disorder is present in adulthood, it tends to have a chronic course, but spontaneous remission has been reported.

Differential Diagnosis

Gender Identity disorder can be distinguished from simple nonconformity to stereotypical sex-role behavior by the extent and pervasiveness of the cross-gender wishes, interests, and activities. This disorder is not meant to describe a child's nonconformity to stereotypic sex-role behavior as, for example, "tomboyishness" in girls or "sissyish" behavior in boys. Rather, it represents a profound disturbance of the individual's sense of identity with regard to maleness or femaleness. Behavior in children that merely does not fit the cultural stereotype of masculinity or femininity should not be given the diagnosis unless the full syndrome is present, including marked distress or impairment. Transvestic Fetishism occurs in heterosexual (or bisexual) men for whom the cross-dressing behavior is for the purpose of sexual excitement. Aside from cross-dressing, most individuals with Transvestic Fetishism do not have a history of childhood cross-gender behaviors. Males with a presentation that meets full criteria for Gender Identity Disorder as well as Transvestic Fetishism should be given both diagnoses. If gender dysphoria is present in an individual with Transvestic Fetishism but full criteria for Gender Identity Disorder are not met, the specifier With Gender Dysphoria can be used. The category Gender Identity Disorder Not Otherwise specified can be used for individuals who have a gender identity problem with concurrent congenital intersex conditions (e.g., androgen insensitivity syndrome or congenital adrenal hyperplasia). In Schizophrenia, there may rarely be delusions of belonging to the other sex. Insistence by a person with Gender Identity Disorder that he or she is of the other sex is not considered a delusion, because what is invariably meant is that the person feels like a member of the other sex rather than truly believes that he or she is a member of the other sex. In very rare cases, however, Schizophrenia and severe Gender Identity Disorder may coexist.

Diagnostic Criteria for Gender Identity Disorder

A. A strong persistent cross-gender identification (not merely a desire for any perceived cultural advantages of being the other sex). In children, the disturbance is manifested by four (or more) of the following: 1. Repeatedly stated desire to be, or insistence that he or she is the other sex.

2. In boys, preference for cross-dressing or simulating female attire; In girls, insistence on wearing only stereotypical masculine clothing.

3. Strong and persistent preferences for cross-sex roles in make-believe play or persistent fantasies of being the other sex.

4. Intense desire to participate in the stereotypical games and pastimes of the other sex.

5. Strong preference for playmates of the other sex. In adolescents and adults, the disturbance is manifested by symptoms such as a stated desire to be the other sex, frequent passing as the other sex, desire to live or be treated as the other sex, or the conviction that he or she has the typical feelings and reactions of the other sex.

B. Persistent discomfort with his or her sex or sense of inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex. In children, the disturbance is manifested by any of the following:

In boys, assertion that his penis or testes are disgusting or will disappear or assertion that it would be better not to have a penis, or aversion toward rough-and-tumble play and rejection of male stereotypical toys, games, and activities.

In girls, rejection of urinating in a sitting position, assertion that she has or will grow a penis, or assertion that she does not want to grow breasts or menstruate, or marked aversion toward normative feminine clothing.

In adolescents and adults, the disturbance is manifested by symptoms such as preoccupation with getting rid of primary and secondary sex characteristics (e.g., request for hormones, surgery, or other procedures to physically alter sexual characteristics to simulate the other sex) or belief that he or she was born the wrong sex.

C. The disturbance is not concurrent with a physical intersex condition.

D. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

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· Traditional Sexism: Beliefs that men and women are essentially different and should occupy different social roles that women are not as fit as men to perform certain tasks, and that differential treatment of men and women is acceptable.

· Sex: Refers to biological characteristics, that is, male or female anatomy or physiology. The term gender is used to refer to the social roles, attitudes, and behavior associated with males or females.

· Sexual Orientation: The attraction an individual has for a sexual partner of the same or opposite sex.

· Self-Identification Theory of Gender: A theory of gender socialization, developed by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, that begins with a child’s categorization of self as male or female. The child goes on to identify sex-appropriate behaviors in the family, media, and elsewhere, and to adopt those behaviors.

· Gender: Attitudes and behavior associated with and expected of the two sexes. Refers to the social role.

· Gender Identity: The degree to which an individual sees herself or himself as feminine or masculine based on society’s definition of appropriate gender roles.

· Gender Roles: Masculine and feminine prescriptions for behavior. The masculine gender role demands instrumental character traits and behavior, whereas the feminine gender role demands expressive character traits and behavior. Traditional gender roles are giving way to androgyny, but they are by no means gone.

· Intersexual: A person whose genitalia, secondary sex characteristics, hormones, or other physiological features are not unambiguously male or female.

· Transgendered: A person who has adopted a gender identity that differs from the sex/gender of birth.

· Transsexual: Individuals who have begun life identified as a member of one sex, but later come to believe they belong to the other sex. The person may undertake surgical reconstruction to attain a body type closer to that of the desired sex.

· Male Dominance: Refers to a situation in which the male (s) have authority over the female (s). The term refers to the cultural idea of masculine superiority; the idea that men exercise the most control and influence over society’s members.

· Socialization: The process by which society influences members to internalize attitudes, beliefs, values, and expectations.



· Biologically Based: Were initially offered by primatologists who studied human beings as an evolved animal species. The argument was that humans inherited the dominant traits through evolutionary selection.

· Genes: Humans want to continue their genes. Males strategize on how to maximize the distribution of their genes (impregnate women). Women focus on how to nurture their children.

· Brain Lateralization: refers to the relat

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