05 May Compare your analysis of the case to your peers’ viewpoints. In places where you disagree, offer a competing understanding of where the priorities lie. In areas where you agre
In response to two peers, address the following:
- Compare your analysis of the case to your peers' viewpoints. In places where you disagree, offer a competing understanding of where the priorities lie. In areas where you agree, add additional evidence to support the consensus.
- Compare your disciplinary perspective to that of your peers. If you are coming from the same discipline, in what ways was your analysis similar? If you are informed by different disciplines, how do your perspectives diverge?
While there are multiple aspects to consider when trying to understand and address Carla's case, I believe that the most important mental health challenges relevant to this case include mental illness, past or current trauma, social stigma, and socioeconomic status. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) performed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, it is estimated that 17 percent of Hispanic and Latino adults suffer from mental illness (Chau and Holliday-Moore, 2019). A past history of trauma can often be a factor in the development of a substance abuse disorder. In fact, according to Prangnell et al. (2019), “physical, sexual, and emotional trauma, including adverse childhood events, are associated with substance use“(para 1). Trauma and poor coping mechanisms often pave the way to poor coping habits, such as substance abuse. In Carla’s case, she had been struggling with her opioid addiction for a decade, but she had not told anyone or asked for help with her addiction. Many people who suffer from a substance abuse disorder do not pursue help for their addiction because of the stigma associated with this disorder. According to Tsai, Kiang, and Barnett, et al. (2019), there are different areas of stigma associated with a substance abuse disorder and these negative attitudes can hinder a person’s treatment (Public and enacted stigma, para 1). The fear of what family, employers, and the community will think about the person who is suffering from an addiction often keeps him/her from getting the help that is desperately needed. Sometimes, the fear of legal repercussions also serves as a barrier, as well.
Economic status can also be a risk factor for the development of a substance abuse disorder. We do not know what Carla’s home-life was like, but if she was struggling to pay her bills and make ends meet, this could also play a role in her addiction. According to a study published in PLOS One by Altekruse et al. in 2020, “compared to people living in households at least five times above the poverty line, people who lived in poverty were more likely to die from this cause (para 3). The results of this study showed that deaths attributed to opioid use were linked to low socioeconomic status. While this study took place in the United States, it is likely that this is a risk factor for other areas of the world as well.
Opioid use disorders can lead to malnutrition. According to Chavez and Rigg (2020), the lives of those suffering from opioid use disorders often begin to revolve around opioid use, and they begin to use opioids in place of eating a well-balanced diet (para 5). Their priorities change. They may eat at random times and go for long periods without eating, with no concern for the nutritional consequences.
Food insecurity can also be a common issue in those suffering from an opioid use disorder. According to a study published by Ghertner and Groves (2018), those with an opioid use disorder often struggled with monetary issues. Issues such as lack of a home, unemployment, or limited financial resources, which can often occur as a result of an opioid use disorder, make it difficult for those struggling to afford adequate food.
Altekruse, S.F., Cosgrove, C.M., Altekruse, W.C., Jenkins, R.A., & Blanco, C. (2020). Socioeconomic risk factors for fatal opioid overdoses in the United States: Findings from the Mortality Disparities in American Communities Study (MDAC). PLOS One, 15(1), e0227966. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227966
Chau, V., & Holliday-Moore, R. (2019). Opioid and illicit drug use among the Hispanic/Latino populations. SAMHSA Opioid and Illicit Drug Use Among the Hispanic/Latino Populations | SAMHSA
Ghertner, R. & Groves, L. (2018). The opioid crisis and economic opportunity: Geographic and economic trends. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation Research Brief, pp. 1-22. https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/259261/ASPEEoconomicOpportunityOpioidCrisis.pdf
Prangnell, A., Imtiaz, S., Karamouzian, M., & Hayashi, K. (2019). Childhood abuse as a risk factor for injection drug use: A systematic review of observational studies. Drug and Alcohol Review, 39(1), pp71-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.13001
Tsai, A.C., Kiang, M.V., Barnett, M.L., Beletsky, L., Keyes, K.M., McGinty, E.E., Smith, L.R., Strathdee, S.A., Wakeman, S.E., & Venkataramani, A.S. (2019). Stigma as a fundamental hindrance to the United States opioid overdose crisis response. PLOS Medicine, 16(11), e1002969. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002969
Hello everyone ,
One of the most leading cause of mental illness is related to the use of unlawful drugs all countries around the world are dealing with right now . According to Karno et al. (2021) , in 2018 Substance abuse drug has been found to be the leading cause of 9.2 million people out of 47.6 millions diagnosed with mental illness in the United States. One common connection between the use of substance abuse and mental illness is the constant wallingness to lean toward the self-medication hypothesis. Self-medication hypothesis is a theory of addiction in which an individual uses illegal drugs to feed the underlying problems behind their addicted behavior (Rup et al., 2021). Some researchers of San Van Foundation university in Medellin Columbia stated that most individuals started self-medicating themselves by over using pain medicine to hide away from their sufferings (Pacurucu-Castillo et al., 2019). when speaking about Carla's case ,due to the fact that she has been using drug in past and is also the reason why she is admitted to the hospital could qualify her as an undiagnosed patient with mental illness related to anxiety,depression ,and stress.
The brain is not the only part affected by the use of the substance abuse ,it can also have a huge impact on the individual nutritional status. A poor nutrition associated with the use of substance abuse can have a significant effect on the body which can lead to more health problems especially stimulants . Self overexposure to stimulants is found to be one of the cause linked to food insecure individuals (Verdejo-Garcia &Crossin,2021) . Which can be a possible reason for Carla to turn to Opioid in order to control her appetite and allowing herself to not worry about buying food or others household necessities.
Karno, M. P ., Rawson, R., Rogers, B., Spear, S., Grella, C., Mooney, L. J., R., Kagan, B.,& Glasner, S. (2021). Effect of screaning.brief intervention and referral to treatment for unhealthy alcohol and other drug use in mental health treatment settings: A randomized controlled trial. Addiction, 116(1), 159-169. https://doi-org-ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1111/add.15114
Pacurucu-Castillo, S., Ordonez-Mancheno, J., Hernandez-Cruz, A., & Alarcon, R.(2019). World opioid and substance use epidemic: A Latin American perspective. Psychiatric research & clinical practice, 1 (1). https://doi-ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1176/appi.prcp.20180009
Rup, J., Freeman, T. P., Perlman, C., & Hammond, D . (2021). Cannabis and mental health: Prevalence of use and modes of cannabis administration by mental health status . Addictive Behaviors , 121 . https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.106991
Vardejo-Garciam, A., & Crossin, R. (2021). Nutritional and metabolic alterations arising from stimulants use: A targeted of an field. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 120,303-306. https://doiorg.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.11.006
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