30 Jul Develop a lesson plan with Materials and post them to your discussion thread. Justify your choice of the lesson and lesson materials based on the readings. Develop y
Based on the discussion in week 6, develop a lesson plan with Materials and post them to your discussion thread. Justify your choice of the lesson and lesson materials based on the readings. Develop your lesson in accordance with the behavioral dimension of technology so that it can be replicated.
Week 6 Discussion- Attached
Lesson Plan Example Attached
Danielle H Keener
School of Education, UMass Global
EDUU 693: Concepts and Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis
Alice Kumar, MA, BCBA
August 17th, 2022
Equivalence Based Instruction: Matching-to-Sample Lesson Plan
Jon will match identical picture to picture, when presented in an array of 5, for at least 5
different shapes (circle, square, oval, rectangle, triangle) with 80% accuracy across 5
consecutive days, as documented by first trial data collection.
This objective is important for language development and discrimination skill development.
Jon has been attending a preschool special day program for two months and has recently been
introduced to the concept of matching and visual discrimination. Jon is considered an early
learner as he has a growing repertoire of mands (20+ mastered mands) and an emerging ability
to tact stimuli in his environment (ten mastered tacts). Throughout his time in school, staff
have paired with Jon and have established instructional control, made evident by an increase
in the occurrence of many target behaviors following only one instance of reinforcement
(Cooper et al., 2020).
When looking at visual performance, Jon is able to complete two simple on-set puzzles, one
containing reinforcing transportation puzzle pieces which are paired with sound and a
three-piece shape puzzle with knobbed handles. (See Appendix A) Jon is also able to match
dictated shape names to a sample by pointing. Mayer, Sulzer-Azaroff and Wallace describe
this skill more formally as having the ability to “discriminate the features that distinguish one
antecedent stimulus from another” (Mayer, et al., 2019, p.353). Though Jon has developed
this seemingly advanced skill, he has not generalized this skill to matching visual stimuli to
similar corresponding visual stimuli in the natural environment. This indicates that the
implementation of a level 1, matching-to-sample, discrete trial procedure is an appropriate
next step in learning and overall skill development for Jon.
Transition in Table work transition ticket, token board/tokens, reinforcer bin, timer
Beginning iPad, token board/tokens
Middle Target picture cards, comparison shape stimuli, token board/tokens
End Token board/tokens, reinforcer bin, timer
Transition out Circle time transition ticket, token board/tokens
Location and Environmental Arrangement
Location Special day class preschool classroom
People 1:1 adult to student ratio
Furniture Table and two chairs
Materials -Shape picture cards* -Comparison shape stimuli
-Reinforcer Bin -Timer
-Token Board and tokens -iPad for ‘Pete the Cat’ video
*See Appendix A for images of materials Shape Targets: Circle, Square, Triangle, Oval, Rectangle
Transition into the lesson: A one minute warning is given, “You have one more minute of play time
and then we’re going to come to the table.” After one minute, a transition ticket for ‘table work’ is given to Jon.
Beginning: How do you introduce
the lesson once the student /client has transitioned in?
1. “Great job coming to the table! We’re going to learn about shapes with Pete the Cat!”
2. iPad (reinforcing item) is presented on the table to listen to/watch: ‘Learn about Shapes with Pete the Cat!’
3. Instructor responds to video prompts by modeling how to tact basic shapes. No demands are placed on Jon to respond to video prompts.
4. “We’re all done with ‘Pete the Cat’” iPad is removed and placed under the teacher’s chair. Token board and reinforcer bin are presented.
Middle: Script cues and expected
responses. Add corrections for
Trial 1 (Errorless): 1. “Next, let’s practice matching objects”
a. 1 picture stimuli (triangle) is placed on the table in front of Jon
b. Instructor hands Jon the corresponding picture stimuli (triangle) while simultaneously giving the Sd: “match”
c. Instructor keeps hold of the corresponding picture stimuli (triangle) and guides it to the target picture stimuli (triangle)
d. Instructor provides verbal praise “Great job matching!” and then explains “Now it’s your turn to match”
Trial 2: 1. An array of 5 comparison shape stimuli picture cards are placed on
the table in front of Jon in a random, scattered array. 2. Instructor gives Jon a target picture stimuli (triangle) while
simultaneously providing the Sd to “match” 3. If Jon responds by placing target picture stimuli with corresponding
comparison stimuli, one token is provided as reinforcement. If Jon responds incorrectly, an error-correction procedure is implemented:
a. The error-correction procedure involves repeating the steps described in trial 2 except the Sd is presented with a prompt.
b. Trial 2 is then repeated again without the prompt. Trial 3-6: Trial 2 is repeated until all target stimuli have been presented.
End: How does the lesson end?
The lesson ends when all target stimuli have been presented. Instructor states: “You’re all done matching! You can go back to circle time now” while simultaneously handing a circle time transition ticket to Jon.
Reinforcement and schedule
A token economy will be utilized as a means to deliver continuous reinforcement, in the form of tokens, following all correct responses. The token economy involves a fixed ratio 5 (FR5) reinforcement schedule, where reinforcement is to be delivered contingent upon Jon earning 5 tokens. Jon is able to trade 5 tokens for 5 minutes with preferred item/activity (timer needed).
The token economy procedure is currently being utilized throughout the school day and does not need to be formally taught to Jon during ‘Matching-to-Sample’ instruction time. When a correction procedure is utilized throughout this lesson, verbal praise
(lesser preferred reinforcer) is delivered but no tokens are provided.
Punishment No punishment procedures will be utilized throughout this lesson.
The objective will be assessed using first trial data collection where each initial response is recorded. Responses following the error correction procedure will not be recorded.
Data Collection: + = correct independent response FP = No response P=prompted response
*Data is collected using valid, accurate and reliable procedures to document behavior change *Mastery criteria for each individual target = 80% accuracy across 5 consecutive days
Conditional discriminations are a part of everyday life. Children often begin exploring
their environment by noticing single properties of items such as size or color and then begin to
match objects to others which are of the same kind. Mayer, Sulzer-Azaroff and Wallace explain,
“..subtler forms of labeling, classifying, analyzing, grouping or separating various stimuli are
central to much advanced learning and performance.” (Mayer, et al., 2019). The equivalence
based, matching-to-sample lesson plan, written for Jon, incorporates discrete trial learning
methods which introduce the acquisition of simple conditional discriminations.
This lesson also incorporated the seven dimensions of ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis),
which are applied, behavioral, analytic, technological, conceptual, effective and generality (Baer
et al.,1987). The ‘applied’ dimension connects the field of ABA to society by requiring the
behavior and stimuli under study to be of social importance (Baer et al.,1968). This dimension
also emphasizes the importance of stimulus control when looking to solve a target problem (Baer
et al.,1987). This dimension could be observed in the matching-to-sample lesson, as it involves a
more complex means of stimulus control, one which utilizes a four-term contingency, as opposed
to the very familiar (antecedent, behavior, consequence) three-term contingency.
This lesson also meets the criteria of the ‘behavioral’ dimension of Applied Behavior
Analysis, as this dimension emphasizes observable events and the need to take into account the
reliability of direct observation (Baer et al.,1987). The behavior selected for Jon, matching
identical picture stimuli to corresponding picture stimuli, is in need of improvement, is
measurable and behavior change can be documented by the observer by using data collection.
The analytic dimension of ABA involves finding the functional relation between a
behavior change and the manipulation of antecedent and consequent events (Cooper et al., 2020).
The variable manipulation which controls the occurrence or nonoccurrence of a behavior utilized
throughout the matching-to-sample lesson meets this dimension’s criteria and also meets the next
dimension of applied behavior analysis which is conceptual. In order for the lesson to be
considered conceptual, systematic behavior change methods must be used and stimulus and
response events must be specifically clarified (Baer et al.,1987). This dimension of ABA was
incorporated into the lesson through the discrete trial teaching procedures as well as
reinforcement and error-correction procedures.
The lesson plan procedures also meet the criteria of the technological dimension of ABA
as they are specifically described in intricate detail to allow for thorough understanding and
effective implementation, (Baer et al.,1987). When looking at the lesson from the perspective of
the next dimension of ABA, generality, it also meets this criteria. This lesson could be
reproduced across environments, people and time as a means to ensure that behavior change is
maintained (Baer et al.,1987).
The final dimension of ABA, effective, places an emphasis on the social significance of
the behavior change (Mayer, et al., 2019). Learning conditional discriminations is very
important to everyday life. Having the ability to differentiate between various stimuli in the
environment is central to overall functioning in society. Gaining the ability to match identical
shapes will generalize to matching identical items from varying categories and later to more
complex stimuli associations.
The seven dimensions of ABA should be used when writing and implementing a lesson
plan to ensure they are behavior analytic and meet ABA conduct. Each dimension of ABA is
unique and important and provides a roadmap for how instruction and programming could be
implemented. Reflecting upon the lesson, by meeting each dimensional requirement it is
ensured that effective instructional procedures are being implemented which will lead to an
overall positive socially significant behavior change.
The lesson was conducted on Wednesday, August 17th, 2022 in a special day preschool
classroom in San Marcos, California. Reflecting upon completion of the lesson, many things
went well and there is also much room for improvement in terms of overall instructional
implementation and reinforcement procedures. Overall, describing and implementing a
matching-to-sample teaching procedure taught me a lot about basic ABA principles and how
integral they are to the overall success of behavior-change programs.
Throughout the lesson, many things went well including the use of reinforcement
procedures. A pre-established token economy system, which Jon utilizes throughout each school
day, allowed for novel discrete trial, matching-to-sample instruction to be presented while easily
providing continuous reinforcement in the form of tokens. A previously conducted reinforcer
inventory was extremely helpful when initially teaching the token economy procedure. This
reinforcer inventory was also relevant to this lesson, as it allowed instructors to ensure that Jon’s
reinforcer bin contained items and activities determined to be reinforcers for Jon.
The matching-to-sample instructional session began by reinforcing Jon’s ability to come
to the table and sit down with his body oriented appropriately. This was reinforced by presenting
the iPad with a preferred video (‘Pete the Cat’). Next, the matching-to-sample instructional
procedure was conducted. Different from the traditional three term contingency in which
antecedent stimuli signal the availability of reinforcement, a four-term contingency was
implemented which involves conditional stimuli, antecedent stimuli, responses (behaviors) and
consequences (Cooper et al., 2020). This procedure involves reinforcing specific antecedent
stimuli if they are preceded by specific additional stimuli (Mayer, et al., 2019).
This procedure was introduced on the first trial by presenting only the target conditional
stimuli (triangle) paired with the Sd “match” and preceded by adding only the one specific
additional stimuli (triangle picture). Following the first errorless teaching trial, five comparison
stimuli were added to the array and the trial was repeated. Each trial produced a correct response
with the exception of ‘square’ which required the implementation of an errorless correction
procedure prior to evoking an independent response.
The main challenge that I faced throughout the lesson involved distractions in the
classroom environment. When classmates made noises in the play area, or came in from recess
this served as a distraction and required the use of a visual prompt to redirect Jon’s attention.
The use of visual behavior expectations was helpful when used as a prompt to redirect Jon back
to the table when he eloped from the area after hearing peers playing. In the future, I would be
more prepared with visuals to assist as a prompt.
Another challenge involved the addition of a surprise item, a ‘Pete the Cat’ stuffed
animal, to Jon’s reinforcer bin. This was assumed to be a reinforcer for Jon, as he finds songs,
videos and books which incorporate the ‘Pete the Cat’ character to be reinforcing.
Unfortunately, the presentation of the reinforcer bin evoked a negative response of screaming
and leaving the area. The ‘Pete the Cat’ stuffed animal was immediately removed from the
reinforcer bin and it was re-presented to Jon, which evoked the target response of coming back to
the table and sitting appropriately. If given the opportunity to re-conduct this lesson, I would
make sure that an item is reinforcing prior to placing the item in any reinforcer bin.
When reflecting on the lesson from a behavioral perspective, I learned the importance of
always having all possible materials needed for prompting readily available. An example of this
occurred when classroom distractions were occurring and I needed a visual representation of
table work expectations (sitting in chair, orienting towards the speaker, etc.). One thing I would
change is anticipating the worst possible outcome, instead of the best as a means to be ready for
The seven dimensions of ABA are intricate and valuable and serve as a guide to applied
behavior analytic conduct (Baer et al., 1968 & 1987; Cooper et al., 2020). By integrating the
dimensions of ABA when writing an instructional lesson or more specifically, when developing a
matching-to-sample teaching procedure, the importance and effectiveness of ABA principles and
how integral they are to the overall success of behavior-change programs became very clear.
Baer, D.M, Wolf, M.M., Risley, T.R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior
analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.1, p 91-97.
Baer, D.M, Wolf, M.M., Risley, T.R. (1987). Some still-current dimensions of applied behavior
analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.4(20), p 313-327.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2020). Applied behavior analysis (3rd ed.).
Mayer, G. R., Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Wallace, M. (2019) Behavior analysis for lasting change
(4th ed.). Sloan Publishing.
A. Mastered Puzzles
C. Data Collection
APPENDIX A: Mastered Puzzles
APPENDIX B: Materials
Token Board Timer Transition Tickets
Behavior Expectations Visual Comparison shape stimuli Target shape picture stimuli
APPENDIX B: Data Collection
Equivalence-based instruction (EBI) allows for maximization of instructional efficiency because a client can learn more than the basic aspects of what is being taught (Wallace & Mayer, Sulzer-Azeroff, 2022). The approach is considered a stimulus equivalent approach where the learning of a single concept can be used to stimulate knowledge and mastery of other related concepts (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2020). One objective that can be taught through equivalence-based instruction is learning of associations. Under this objective, learners can learn associations that are contextual based. For instance, in a mathematics class learners can be taught associations between numbers and shapes. A figure with three edges like a triangle can be associated with the number 3 and a figure with 5 edges like pentagon can be associated with the number 5. This same concept can be expanded in the same context to teach additions and subtractions. A teacher can help the students learn how to count when 3 and 5 are added together by counting the edges of the shapes.
The objective of teaching associations can also be applied in a bilingual class where students are learning two different languages. For instance, a drawing of a ‘cat’ can easily be named and pronounced by English language learners. Spanish language learners would easily learn the English word equivalent of the word cat when the drawing is labeled ‘gato’. In this example, bilingual language students will not only master the name, but also learn how to draw and say the word in the two languages.
Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., Heward, W.L. (2020). Applied behavior analysis (3rd ed.) Pearson
Wallace. M.G & Mayer, R. Sulzer-Azeroff, B. (2022). Behavior analysis for lasting change (5th ed). Sloan Educational Publishing.
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