Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Develop a lesson plan with Materials and post them to your discussion thread. Justify your choice of the lesson and lesson materials based on the readings. Develop y | Wridemy

Develop a lesson plan with Materials and post them to your discussion thread. Justify your choice of the lesson and lesson materials based on the readings. Develop y

Based on the discussion in week 6, develop a lesson plan with Materials and post them to your discussion thread. Justify your choice of the lesson and lesson materials based on the readings. Develop your lesson in accordance with the behavioral dimension of technology so that it can be replicated.

Week 6 Discussion- Attached

Lesson Plan Example Attached

Signature Assignment

Danielle H Keener

School of Education, UMass Global

EDUU 693: Concepts and Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

Alice Kumar, MA, BCBA

August 17th, 2022


Equivalence Based Instruction: Matching-to-Sample Lesson Plan


Jon will match identical picture to picture, when presented in an array of 5, for at least 5

different shapes (circle, square, oval, rectangle, triangle) with 80% accuracy across 5

consecutive days, as documented by first trial data collection.


This objective is important for language development and discrimination skill development.

Jon has been attending a preschool special day program for two months and has recently been

introduced to the concept of matching and visual discrimination. Jon is considered an early

learner as he has a growing repertoire of mands (20+ mastered mands) and an emerging ability

to tact stimuli in his environment (ten mastered tacts). Throughout his time in school, staff

have paired with Jon and have established instructional control, made evident by an increase

in the occurrence of many target behaviors following only one instance of reinforcement

(Cooper et al., 2020).

When looking at visual performance, Jon is able to complete two simple on-set puzzles, one

containing reinforcing transportation puzzle pieces which are paired with sound and a

three-piece shape puzzle with knobbed handles. (See Appendix A) Jon is also able to match

dictated shape names to a sample by pointing. Mayer, Sulzer-Azaroff and Wallace describe

this skill more formally as having the ability to “discriminate the features that distinguish one

antecedent stimulus from another” (Mayer, et al., 2019, p.353). Though Jon has developed

this seemingly advanced skill, he has not generalized this skill to matching visual stimuli to

similar corresponding visual stimuli in the natural environment. This indicates that the

implementation of a level 1, matching-to-sample, discrete trial procedure is an appropriate

next step in learning and overall skill development for Jon.


Transition in Table work transition ticket, token board/tokens, reinforcer bin, timer

Beginning iPad, token board/tokens


Middle Target picture cards, comparison shape stimuli, token board/tokens

End Token board/tokens, reinforcer bin, timer

Transition out Circle time transition ticket, token board/tokens

Location and Environmental Arrangement

Location Special day class preschool classroom

People 1:1 adult to student ratio

Furniture Table and two chairs

Materials -Shape picture cards* -Comparison shape stimuli

-Reinforcer Bin -Timer

-Token Board and tokens -iPad for ‘Pete the Cat’ video

*See Appendix A for images of materials Shape Targets: Circle, Square, Triangle, Oval, Rectangle


Transition into the lesson: A one minute warning is given, “You have one more minute of play time

and then we’re going to come to the table.” After one minute, a transition ticket for ‘table work’ is given to Jon.

Beginning: How do you introduce

the lesson once the student /client has transitioned in?

1. “Great job coming to the table! We’re going to learn about shapes with Pete the Cat!”

2. iPad (reinforcing item) is presented on the table to listen to/watch: ‘Learn about Shapes with Pete the Cat!’

3. Instructor responds to video prompts by modeling how to tact basic shapes. No demands are placed on Jon to respond to video prompts.

4. “We’re all done with ‘Pete the Cat’” iPad is removed and placed under the teacher’s chair. Token board and reinforcer bin are presented.


Middle: Script cues and expected

responses. Add corrections for

unexpected responses

Trial 1 (Errorless): 1. “Next, let’s practice matching objects”

a. 1 picture stimuli (triangle) is placed on the table in front of Jon

b. Instructor hands Jon the corresponding picture stimuli (triangle) while simultaneously giving the Sd: “match”

c. Instructor keeps hold of the corresponding picture stimuli (triangle) and guides it to the target picture stimuli (triangle)

d. Instructor provides verbal praise “Great job matching!” and then explains “Now it’s your turn to match”

Trial 2: 1. An array of 5 comparison shape stimuli picture cards are placed on

the table in front of Jon in a random, scattered array. 2. Instructor gives Jon a target picture stimuli (triangle) while

simultaneously providing the Sd to “match” 3. If Jon responds by placing target picture stimuli with corresponding

comparison stimuli, one token is provided as reinforcement. If Jon responds incorrectly, an error-correction procedure is implemented:

a. The error-correction procedure involves repeating the steps described in trial 2 except the Sd is presented with a prompt.

b. Trial 2 is then repeated again without the prompt. Trial 3-6: Trial 2 is repeated until all target stimuli have been presented.

End: How does the lesson end?

The lesson ends when all target stimuli have been presented. Instructor states: “You’re all done matching! You can go back to circle time now” while simultaneously handing a circle time transition ticket to Jon.


Reinforcement and schedule

A token economy will be utilized as a means to deliver continuous reinforcement, in the form of tokens, following all correct responses. The token economy involves a fixed ratio 5 (FR5) reinforcement schedule, where reinforcement is to be delivered contingent upon Jon earning 5 tokens. Jon is able to trade 5 tokens for 5 minutes with preferred item/activity (timer needed).

The token economy procedure is currently being utilized throughout the school day and does not need to be formally taught to Jon during ‘Matching-to-Sample’ instruction time. When a correction procedure is utilized throughout this lesson, verbal praise


(lesser preferred reinforcer) is delivered but no tokens are provided.

Punishment No punishment procedures will be utilized throughout this lesson.


The objective will be assessed using first trial data collection where each initial response is recorded. Responses following the error correction procedure will not be recorded.

Data Collection: + = correct independent response FP = No response P=prompted response

*Data is collected using valid, accurate and reliable procedures to document behavior change *Mastery criteria for each individual target = 80% accuracy across 5 consecutive days


Conditional discriminations are a part of everyday life. Children often begin exploring

their environment by noticing single properties of items such as size or color and then begin to

match objects to others which are of the same kind. Mayer, Sulzer-Azaroff and Wallace explain,

“..subtler forms of labeling, classifying, analyzing, grouping or separating various stimuli are

central to much advanced learning and performance.” (Mayer, et al., 2019). The equivalence

based, matching-to-sample lesson plan, written for Jon, incorporates discrete trial learning

methods which introduce the acquisition of simple conditional discriminations.

This lesson also incorporated the seven dimensions of ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis),

which are applied, behavioral, analytic, technological, conceptual, effective and generality (Baer

et al.,1987). The ‘applied’ dimension connects the field of ABA to society by requiring the

behavior and stimuli under study to be of social importance (Baer et al.,1968). This dimension

also emphasizes the importance of stimulus control when looking to solve a target problem (Baer


et al.,1987). This dimension could be observed in the matching-to-sample lesson, as it involves a

more complex means of stimulus control, one which utilizes a four-term contingency, as opposed

to the very familiar (antecedent, behavior, consequence) three-term contingency.

This lesson also meets the criteria of the ‘behavioral’ dimension of Applied Behavior

Analysis, as this dimension emphasizes observable events and the need to take into account the

reliability of direct observation (Baer et al.,1987). The behavior selected for Jon, matching

identical picture stimuli to corresponding picture stimuli, is in need of improvement, is

measurable and behavior change can be documented by the observer by using data collection.

The analytic dimension of ABA involves finding the functional relation between a

behavior change and the manipulation of antecedent and consequent events (Cooper et al., 2020).

The variable manipulation which controls the occurrence or nonoccurrence of a behavior utilized

throughout the matching-to-sample lesson meets this dimension’s criteria and also meets the next

dimension of applied behavior analysis which is conceptual. In order for the lesson to be

considered conceptual, systematic behavior change methods must be used and stimulus and

response events must be specifically clarified (Baer et al.,1987). This dimension of ABA was

incorporated into the lesson through the discrete trial teaching procedures as well as

reinforcement and error-correction procedures.

The lesson plan procedures also meet the criteria of the technological dimension of ABA

as they are specifically described in intricate detail to allow for thorough understanding and

effective implementation, (Baer et al.,1987). When looking at the lesson from the perspective of

the next dimension of ABA, generality, it also meets this criteria. This lesson could be

reproduced across environments, people and time as a means to ensure that behavior change is

maintained (Baer et al.,1987).


The final dimension of ABA, effective, places an emphasis on the social significance of

the behavior change (Mayer, et al., 2019). Learning conditional discriminations is very

important to everyday life. Having the ability to differentiate between various stimuli in the

environment is central to overall functioning in society. Gaining the ability to match identical

shapes will generalize to matching identical items from varying categories and later to more

complex stimuli associations.

The seven dimensions of ABA should be used when writing and implementing a lesson

plan to ensure they are behavior analytic and meet ABA conduct. Each dimension of ABA is

unique and important and provides a roadmap for how instruction and programming could be

implemented. Reflecting upon the lesson, by meeting each dimensional requirement it is

ensured that effective instructional procedures are being implemented which will lead to an

overall positive socially significant behavior change.


The lesson was conducted on Wednesday, August 17th, 2022 in a special day preschool

classroom in San Marcos, California. Reflecting upon completion of the lesson, many things

went well and there is also much room for improvement in terms of overall instructional

implementation and reinforcement procedures. Overall, describing and implementing a

matching-to-sample teaching procedure taught me a lot about basic ABA principles and how

integral they are to the overall success of behavior-change programs.

Throughout the lesson, many things went well including the use of reinforcement

procedures. A pre-established token economy system, which Jon utilizes throughout each school

day, allowed for novel discrete trial, matching-to-sample instruction to be presented while easily

providing continuous reinforcement in the form of tokens. A previously conducted reinforcer


inventory was extremely helpful when initially teaching the token economy procedure. This

reinforcer inventory was also relevant to this lesson, as it allowed instructors to ensure that Jon’s

reinforcer bin contained items and activities determined to be reinforcers for Jon.

The matching-to-sample instructional session began by reinforcing Jon’s ability to come

to the table and sit down with his body oriented appropriately. This was reinforced by presenting

the iPad with a preferred video (‘Pete the Cat’). Next, the matching-to-sample instructional

procedure was conducted. Different from the traditional three term contingency in which

antecedent stimuli signal the availability of reinforcement, a four-term contingency was

implemented which involves conditional stimuli, antecedent stimuli, responses (behaviors) and

consequences (Cooper et al., 2020). This procedure involves reinforcing specific antecedent

stimuli if they are preceded by specific additional stimuli (Mayer, et al., 2019).

This procedure was introduced on the first trial by presenting only the target conditional

stimuli (triangle) paired with the Sd “match” and preceded by adding only the one specific

additional stimuli (triangle picture). Following the first errorless teaching trial, five comparison

stimuli were added to the array and the trial was repeated. Each trial produced a correct response

with the exception of ‘square’ which required the implementation of an errorless correction

procedure prior to evoking an independent response.

The main challenge that I faced throughout the lesson involved distractions in the

classroom environment. When classmates made noises in the play area, or came in from recess

this served as a distraction and required the use of a visual prompt to redirect Jon’s attention.

The use of visual behavior expectations was helpful when used as a prompt to redirect Jon back

to the table when he eloped from the area after hearing peers playing. In the future, I would be

more prepared with visuals to assist as a prompt.


Another challenge involved the addition of a surprise item, a ‘Pete the Cat’ stuffed

animal, to Jon’s reinforcer bin. This was assumed to be a reinforcer for Jon, as he finds songs,

videos and books which incorporate the ‘Pete the Cat’ character to be reinforcing.

Unfortunately, the presentation of the reinforcer bin evoked a negative response of screaming

and leaving the area. The ‘Pete the Cat’ stuffed animal was immediately removed from the

reinforcer bin and it was re-presented to Jon, which evoked the target response of coming back to

the table and sitting appropriately. If given the opportunity to re-conduct this lesson, I would

make sure that an item is reinforcing prior to placing the item in any reinforcer bin.

When reflecting on the lesson from a behavioral perspective, I learned the importance of

always having all possible materials needed for prompting readily available. An example of this

occurred when classroom distractions were occurring and I needed a visual representation of

table work expectations (sitting in chair, orienting towards the speaker, etc.). One thing I would

change is anticipating the worst possible outcome, instead of the best as a means to be ready for

any response.

The seven dimensions of ABA are intricate and valuable and serve as a guide to applied

behavior analytic conduct (Baer et al., 1968 & 1987; Cooper et al., 2020). By integrating the

dimensions of ABA when writing an instructional lesson or more specifically, when developing a

matching-to-sample teaching procedure, the importance and effectiveness of ABA principles and

how integral they are to the overall success of behavior-change programs became very clear.



Baer, D.M, Wolf, M.M., Risley, T.R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior

analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.1, p 91-97.

Baer, D.M, Wolf, M.M., Risley, T.R. (1987). Some still-current dimensions of applied behavior

analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.4(20), p 313-327.

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2020). Applied behavior analysis (3rd ed.).


Mayer, G. R., Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Wallace, M. (2019) Behavior analysis for lasting change

(4th ed.). Sloan Publishing.



A. Mastered Puzzles

B. Materials

C. Data Collection

APPENDIX A: Mastered Puzzles

APPENDIX B: Materials

Token Board Timer Transition Tickets

Behavior Expectations Visual Comparison shape stimuli Target shape picture stimuli


APPENDIX B: Data Collection

Data Sheet



Equivalence-Based Instruction

Student’s Name





Equivalence-Based Instruction

Equivalence-based instruction (EBI) allows for maximization of instructional efficiency because a client can learn more than the basic aspects of what is being taught (Wallace & Mayer, Sulzer-Azeroff, 2022). The approach is considered a stimulus equivalent approach where the learning of a single concept can be used to stimulate knowledge and mastery of other related concepts (Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2020). One objective that can be taught through equivalence-based instruction is learning of associations. Under this objective, learners can learn associations that are contextual based. For instance, in a mathematics class learners can be taught associations between numbers and shapes. A figure with three edges like a triangle can be associated with the number 3 and a figure with 5 edges like pentagon can be associated with the number 5. This same concept can be expanded in the same context to teach additions and subtractions. A teacher can help the students learn how to count when 3 and 5 are added together by counting the edges of the shapes.

The objective of teaching associations can also be applied in a bilingual class where students are learning two different languages. For instance, a drawing of a ‘cat’ can easily be named and pronounced by English language learners. Spanish language learners would easily learn the English word equivalent of the word cat when the drawing is labeled ‘gato’. In this example, bilingual language students will not only master the name, but also learn how to draw and say the word in the two languages.


Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., Heward, W.L. (2020). Applied behavior analysis (3rd ed.) Pearson

Wallace. M.G & Mayer, R. Sulzer-Azeroff, B. (2022). Behavior analysis for lasting change (5th ed). Sloan Educational Publishing.

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