04 Sep Blend knowledge gained from the Lesson 1 materials with your past knowledge of child growth and development.Use the first part of this paper to reflect on the knowledge (from
What I Know and Need to Know About Child Growth and DevelopmentRisky Adolescent Behaviors and Adult Intervention – Presentation and Annotated Resource GuideAssignment OverviewTAssignment DetailsPerform the following tasks:Part 1: Blend knowledge gained from the Lesson 1 materials with your past knowledge of child growth and development.Use the first part of this paper to reflect on the knowledge (from the course content and from your past knowledge and experiences) you already possess about child growth and development. What important concepts and practices surrounding child growth and development have you already learned? Why are they important? How might they contribute to your future role in the child care field (or other fields)?Please cite appropriately from the text (with specific page numbers) and from your knowledge and experiences (with specific examples) to construct a response that is supported and specific.Part 2: Reflect on what you need to know and to learn in this course.Think about your future goals, profession, or role as a parent, citizen, or community member as such may require knowledge of child growth and development. Use the second part of this paper to discuss knowledge, concepts, and practices that you think you need to know to thrive in one or more of these capacities. What child growth and development-based knowledge would best aid you in achieving your goals? Why this knowledge? How do you hope to gain such knowledge?You should focus your response based upon your individual goals and purpose for taking this course. If you are interested in pursuing child care or education as a professional field in the future, direct your response accordingly. If you are interested in child growth and development for other reasons, make those clear in this as well. Your response should, above all else, be concise, focused, and well-supported.
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CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
An Open Educational Resources Publication by College of the Canyons
Authored and compiled by Jennifer Paris, Antoinette Ricardo, & Dawn Rymond
Editor: Alexa Johnson Cover & Graphics: Ian Joslin
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College of the Canyons would like to extend appreciation to the following people and organizations for allowing this textbook to be created:
California Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office Chancellor Dianne G. Van Hook
Santa Clarita Community College District College of the Canyons Distance Learning Office
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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
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Further Acknowledgements I would like to thank: My department including my full-time faculty colleagues, Cindy Stephens and Wendy Ruiz, who supported me pursuing the grant that funded this book and believe in the purpose of our OER work. James Glapa-Grossklag for taking a chance on working with me for this grant before he really knew me and for all the opportunities I have been afforded since then. Brian Weston for his leadership, guidance, and just being there to help facilitate the amazing project that this book is part of. Alexa Johnson for her painstaking work on the book and taking words on pages and turning them into this beautiful book. Chloe McGinley, Joy Shoemate, Trudi Radtke, and any other OER and Online Education staff that helped me maintain my sanity in this project. My co-authors, Antoinette Ricardo and Dawn Rymond, for their tireless efforts and collaboration. The peer reviewers, Michelle Hancock, Gina Peterson, and Ashlei Snead for widening the collaboration and their work to make the book better. The ECE 101 students of Spring 2019 at College of the Canyons for piloting the textbook, chapter by chapter with us and providing feedback and content that may be used to create supplementary resources. My family, especially my children Ashlynn and Aidan, for being understanding of the time and energy commitments that this book, the larger project it is part of, and my advocacy for OER has taken. Amanda Taintor, my colleague, ally, and co-conspirator in the effort to engage the field of Early Childhood Education in OER efforts. The larger OER community that keeps me thinking and pushing my understanding of what open is, what it should be, and what role I can play in that. Jennifer Paris
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First and foremost, I would like to thank God for blessing me with an amazing job that allows me to teach and grow each and every day. Thank you to College of the Canyons and our whole OER team for making this vision a reality. Special thanks to Jennifer Paris who has not only mentored me and been a great friend, but has also lead us in this whole OER journey. I’m grateful to work for a such a wonderful department that sets the foundation for positive growth in children. Thank you to my parents and my brother whose love and support has gotten me to where I am today. To my husband, Andres, thank you for always believing in me and pushing me to be the best I can be, I love you. To my children, Manolo and Paloma; this book is for you. Every day, you are my inspiration. Mamita te ama! Antoinette Ricardo
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Writing and contributing to this textbook has been a labor of love. My hope is that after students gain knowledge, they will continue to be inspired to learn and will be a positive role in the lives of children. I would like to say a special thank you to College of the Canyons, ECE department. I’ve been very fortunate to be a part of this outstanding Open Educational Resources (OER) team, which has been a supportive and collaborative experience. I’d like to thank Jennifer Paris, the faculty lead for the grant that funded the creation of this and other OER books for our department. I am continually grateful to my family. Thank you, Nick, Jake, and Jordan, for your contually love and support. “Education is not the preparation for life; education is life itself.” -John Dewey Dawn Rymond
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction to Child Development 8
Chapter 2: Conception, Heredity, & Prenatal Development 39
Chapter 3: Birth and the Newborn 71
Chapter 4: Physical Development in Infancy & Toddlerhood 89
Chapter 5: Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood 126
Chapter 6: Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood 146
Chapter 7: Physical Development in Early Childhood 165
Chapter 8: Cognitive Development in Early Childhood 184
Chapter 9: Social Emotional Development in Early Childhood 210
Chapter 10: Middle Childhood – Physical Development 238
Chapter 11: Middle Childhood – Cognitive Development 268
Chapter 12: Middle Childhood – Social Emotional Development 302
Chapter 13: Adolescence – Physical Development 327
Chapter 14: Adolescence – Cognitive Development 362
Chapter 15: Adolescence – Social Emotional Development 384
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Chapter 1: Introduction to Child Development
Chapter Objectives After this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Describe the principles that underlie development. 2. Differentiate periods of human development. 3. Evaluate issues in development. 4. Distinguish the different methods of research. 5. Explain what a theory is. 6. Compare and contrast different theories of child development.
Introduction Welcome to Child Growth and Development. This text is a presentation of how and why children grow, develop, and learn. We will look at how we change physically over time from conception through adolescence. We examine cognitive change, or how our ability to think and remember changes over the first 20 years or so of life. And we will look at how our emotions, psychological state, and social relationships change throughout childhood and adolescence.1
Principles of Development There are several underlying principles of development to keep in mind:
Development is lifelong and change is apparent across the lifespan (although this text ends with adolescence). And early experiences affect later development.
Development is multidirectional. We show gains in some areas of development, while showing loss in other areas.
Development is multidimensional. We change across three general domains/dimensions; physical, cognitive, and social and emotional.
The physical domain includes changes in height and weight, changes in gross and fine motor skills, sensory capabilities, the nervous system, as well as the propensity for disease and illness.
The cognitive domain encompasses the changes in intelligence, wisdom, perception, problem-solving, memory, and language.
The social and emotional domain (also referred to as psychosocial) focuses on changes in emotion, self-perception, and interpersonal relationships with families, peers, and friends.
1 Introduction to Lifespan, Growth and Development by Lumen Learning is licensed under CC BY 4.0
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All three domains influence each other. It is also important to note that a change in one domain may cascade and prompt changes in the other domains.
Development is characterized by plasticity, which is our ability to change and that many of our characteristics are malleable. Early experiences are important, but children are remarkably resilient (able to overcome adversity).
Development is multicontextual.2 We are influenced by both nature (genetics) and nurture (the environment) – when and where we live and our actions, beliefs, and values are a response to circumstances surrounding us. The key here is to understand that behaviors, motivations, emotions, and choices are all part of a bigger picture.3
Now let’s look at a framework for examining development.
Periods of Development Think about what periods of development that you think a course on Child Development would address. How many stages are on your list? Perhaps you have three: infancy, childhood, and teenagers. Developmentalists (those that study development) break this part of the life span into these five stages as follows:
Prenatal Development (conception through birth)
Infancy and Toddlerhood (birth through two years)
Early Childhood (3 to 5 years)
Middle Childhood (6 to 11 years)
Adolescence (12 years to adulthood) This list reflects unique aspects of the various stages of childhood and adolescence that will be explored in this book. So while both an 8 month old and an 8 year old are considered children, they have very different motor abilities, social relationships, and cognitive skills. Their nutritional needs are different and their primary psychological concerns are also distinctive.
2 Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 (modified by Jennifer Paris) 3 Introduction to Lifespan, Growth and Development by Lumen Learning is licensed under CC BY 4.0
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Prenatal Development Conception occurs and development begins. All of the major structures of the body are forming and the health of the mother is of primary concern. Understanding nutrition, teratogens (or environmental factors that can lead to birth defects), and labor and delivery are primary concerns.
Figure 1.1 – A tiny embryo depicting some development of arms and legs, as well as facial features that are starting
to show. 4
Infancy and Toddlerhood The two years of life are ones of dramatic growth and change. A newborn, with a keen sense of hearing but very poor vision is transformed into a walking, talking toddler within a relatively short period of time. Caregivers are also transformed from someone who manages feeding and sleep schedules to a constantly moving guide and safety inspector for a mobile, energetic child.
Figure 1.2 – A swaddled newborn. 5
Early Childhood Early childhood is also referred to as the preschool years and consists of the years which follow toddlerhood and precede formal schooling. As a three to five-year-old, the child is busy learning language, is gaining a sense of self and greater independence, and is beginning to learn the
4 Image by lunar caustic is licensed under CC BY 2.0 5 Image by Han Myo Htwe on Unsplash
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workings of the physical world. This knowledge does not come quickly, however, and preschoolers may initially have interesting conceptions of size, time, space and distance such as fearing that they may go down the drain if they sit at the front of the bathtub or by demonstrating how long something will take by holding out their two index fingers several inches apart. A toddler’s fierce determination to do something may give way to a four-year- old’s sense of guilt for action that brings the disapproval of others.
Figure 1.3 – Two young children playing in the Singapore Botanic Gardens6
Middle Childhood The ages of six through eleven comprise middle childhood and much of what children experience at this age is connected to their involvement in the early grades of school. Now the world becomes one of learning and testing new academic skills and by assessing one’s abilities and accomplishments by making comparisons between self and others. Schools compare students and make these comparisons public through team sports, test scores, and other forms of recognition. Growth rates slow down and children are able to refine their motor skills at this point in life. And children begin to learn about social relationships beyond the family through interaction with friends and fellow students.
Figure 1.4 – Two children running down the street in Carenage, Trinidad and Tobago7
6 Image by Alaric Sim on Unsplash 7 Image by Wayne Lee-Sing on Unsplash
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Adolescence Adolescence is a period of dramatic physical change marked by an overall physical growth spurt and sexual maturation, known as puberty. It is also a time of cognitive change as the adolescent begins to think of new possibilities and to consider abstract concepts such as love, fear, and freedom. Ironically, adolescents have a sense of invincibility that puts them at greater risk of dying from accidents or contracting sexually transmitted infections that can have lifelong consequences.8
Figure 1.5 – Two smiling teenage women.9
There are some aspects of development that have been hotly debated. Let’s explore these.
Issues in Development Nature and Nurture Why are people the way they are? Are features such as height, weight, personality, being diabetic, etc. the result of heredity or environmental factors-or both? For decades, scholars have carried on the "nature/nurture" debate. For any particular feature, those on the side of Nature would argue that heredity plays the most important role in bringing about that feature. Those on the side of Nurture would argue that one's environment is most significant in shaping the way we are. This debate continues in all aspects of human development, and most scholars agree that there is a constant interplay between the two forces. It is difficult to isolate the root of any single behavior as a result solely of nature or nurture.
Continuity versus Discontinuity Is human development best characterized as a slow, gradual process, or is it best viewed as one of more abrupt change? The answer to that question often depends on which developmental theorist you ask and what topic is being studied. The theories of Freud, Erikson, Piaget, and Kohlberg are called stage theories. Stage theories or discontinuous development assume that developmental change often occurs in distinct stages that are qualitatively different from each
8 Periods of Development by Lumen Learning is licensed under CC BY 4.0 9 Image by Matheus Ferrero on Unsplash
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other, and in a set, universal sequence. At each stage of development, children and adults have different qualities and characteristics. Thus, stage theorists assume development is more discontinuous. Others, such as the behaviorists, Vygotsky, and information processing theorists, assume development is a more slow and gradual process known as continuous development. For instance, they would see the adult as not possessing new skills, but more advanced skills that were already present in some form in the child. Brain development and environmental experiences contribute to the acquisition of more developed skills.
Figure 1.6 – The graph to the left shows three stages in the continuous growth of a tree. The graph to the right
shows four distinct stages of development in the life cycle of a ladybug.10
Active versus Passive How much do you play a role in your own developmental path? Are you at the whim of your genetic inheritance or the environment that surrounds you? Some theorists see humans as playing a much more active role in their own development. Piaget, for instance believed that children actively explore their world and construct new ways of thinking to explain the things they experience. In contrast, many behaviorists view humans as being more passive in the developmental process.11 How do we know so much about how we grow, develop, and learn? Let’s look at how that data is gathered through research
Research Methods An important part of learning any science is having a basic knowledge of the techniques used in gathering information. The hallmark of scientific investigation is that of following a set of procedures designed to keep questioning or skepticism alive while describing, explaining, or
10 Image by NOBA is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 11 Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective by Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0
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testing any phenomenon. Some people are hesitant to trust academicians or researchers because they always seem to change their story. That, however, is exactly what science is all about; it involves continuously renewing our understanding of the subjects in question and an ongoing investigation of how and why events occur. Science is a vehicle for going on a never- ending journey. In the area of development, we have seen changes in recommendations for nutrition, in explanations of psychological states as people age, and in parenting advice. So think of learning about human development as a lifelong endeavor. Take a moment to write down two things that you know about childhood. Now, how do you know? Chances are you know these things based on your own history (experiential reality) or based on what others have told you or cultural ideas (agreement reality) (Seccombe and Warner, 2004). There are several problems with personal inquiry. Read the following sentence aloud:
Paris in the
the spring Are you sure that is what it said? Read it again:
Paris in the
the spring If you read it differently the second time (adding the second “the”) you just experienced one of the problems with personal inquiry; that is, the tendency to see what we believe. Our assumptions very often guide our perceptions, consequently, when we believe something, we tend to see it even if it is not there. This problem may just be a result of cognitive ‘blinders’ or it may be part of a more conscious attempt to support our own views. Confirmation bias is the tendency to look for evidence that we are right and in so doing, we ignore contradictory evidence. Popper suggests that the distinction between that which is scientific and that which is unscientific is that science is falsifiable; scientific inquiry involves attempts to reject or refute a theory or set of assumptions (Thornton, 2005). Theory that cannot be falsified is not scientific. And much of what we do in personal inquiry involves drawing conclusions based on what we have personally experienced or validating our own experience by discussing what we think is true with others who share the same views. Science offers a more systematic way to make comparisons guard against bias.
Scientific Methods One method of scientific investigation involves the following steps:
1. Determining a research question 2. Reviewing previous studies addressing the topic in question (known as a literature
review) 3. Determining a method of gathering information 4. Conducting the study
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5. Interpreting results 6. Drawing conclusions; stating limitations of the study and suggestions for future research 7. Making your findings available to others (both to share information and to have your
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