Chat with us, powered by LiveChat You will create 5 journal entries regarding the interpersonal and intra-personal concepts covered over the semester. | Wridemy

You will create 5 journal entries regarding the interpersonal and intra-personal concepts covered over the semester.

The homework assignment is attached below under 'What to do'. The reading is also down below under 'chapter 2'. Explain the concept rather than reading the same explanation in the book. 

You will create 5 journal entries regarding the interpersonal and intra-personal concepts covered over the semester. The journal responses are designed for you to explore your own experiences regarding course concepts.

• Department Goal: Analysis of Communication • Learning Outcome: Critical Thinking (AACU) and Critically Analyzing

Messages (NCA LOC5) Your journal response is going to have three parts.

In the first part of your assignment, you are going to identify(select) AND define (in your own words) a minimum of 3 and no more than 5 concepts/aspects/perspectives/theories that you have learned from chapter 2 (Communicating Identities) of our book, and you deem these newly learned concepts/theories to be intriguing and/or useful in your future professional and personal lives.

In the second part of your homework assignment, you`re going to explain why you believe these newly learned concepts are useful in your personal and professional lives. In other words, what makes these concepts/theories important in your life?

In the third part of your assignment, you are going to explain how learning these concepts will impact your personal and professional lives from this point onward. In other words, what aspects of your interpersonal and intrapersonal communication do you think (and want to) improve based on the newly learned concepts that you discussed in the first part of the assignment.

The criteria are as follows:

– At least three and no more than five concepts/theories are selected, defined, explained, and used in the paper

– 600 words

– It does not have grave grammatical errors and is free of typos

– CLEARLY AND CONCISELY explains why you believe these newly learned concepts are useful in your personal and professional lives. In other words, what makes these concepts/theories important in your life.

– CLEARLY AND CONCISELY explains how learning these concepts will impact your personal and professional lives from this point onward. In other words, what aspects of your interpersonal and intrapersonal communication do you think (and want to) improve based on the newly learned concepts that you discussed in the first part of the question?

Please use your own words to explain/define concepts. I will be much more impressed by your ability to explain a concept in your own words rather than reading the same explanation in the book.


The Importance of Identity 2.1 Identify six reasons identity is important to communication.

Identity has a tremendous impact on the communication process in a number of ways. How we

communicate, as well as how our communication is received by others, can be shaped by our identities

and the identities of others. Let's look at some of the ways that identity influences communication. First,

because individuals bring their self-images or identities to each communicative encounter, every

communication interaction is affected by their identities. For example, when elderly people converse

with teenagers, both groups may have to accommodate for differences in their experiences and

language use. Second, communication interactions create and shape identities (Carbaugh, 2007). If older

adults treat teenagers with respect and admiration during their conversations, these young people may

view themselves as more mature and more valuable than they did previously. Conversely,

communication can also be used to denigrate other identities and create tension between groups. It is

always important to think about the impact of communication on various identity groups.

Third, identity plays an important role in intercultural communication, which is something that has

become increasingly common in our global, technology-based world. As more and more businesses have

international branches and subsidiaries, workers are increasingly likely to have contact with people from

other cultures. The more familiar they are with the values related to identity in these cultures, the better

prepared they will be to succeed in today's society. Fourth, understanding identity is useful because so

much of U.S. life is organized around and geared toward specific identities (Allen, 2004). In the United

States, we have television stations such as Black Entertainment Television and Telemundo and, as more

people get rid of cable subscriptions, Black Stories on Hulu, for example, that offer programming for

primarily African American audiences. Magazines like Ebony and Out, among many, are targeted to

groups based on their race, age, gender, or sexuality. We also have entertainment venues such as

Disneyland and Club Med that are developed specifically for families, romantic couples, and singles. In

this identity-based climate, individuals often communicate primarily with others who share their

identities. Consequently, learning how to communicate effectively with individuals whose identities vary

from yours may require considerable thought and effort.

Fifth, identity is a key site in which individual and societal forces come together to shape communication

experiences. Although we each possess identity characteristics such as social class or nationality, the

society where our communication takes place defines the meanings of those characteristics. For

example, depending on whether you are in the United States or visiting a country where anti-American

sentiment is common, what it means to be an "American" can have different nuances. Moreover, we

cannot separate our identities -as individuals or as members of society -from our communication

experiences. Finally, identity is an important part of how we send and receive messages. When someone

wants to speak for or against a proposed change in restaurant regulations at a city council meeting, they

may preface the remarks by noting that they are an owner of a restaurant in the city and then make their

arguments. In other situations, people may identify themselves as parents, consumers, fans, and other

identities. Sometimes identities are used to mobilize people to act, such as the Black Lives Matter

protests held in the wake of the killing of George Floyd in Minneapolis. Not all protestors were African

Americans and all African Americans did not participate, but we are a complex set of interconnected

identities. We explain this interaction more fully throughout this chapter.

What Is Identity? 2.2 Define identity.

When you enrolled in college, you were most likely required to provide a piece of identification, such as

a birth certificate, passport, or driver's license. Identity is tied closely to identification; it refers to who

you are and the specific characteristics that make you different from other individuals. In communication

studies, identity includes not only who you are but also the social categories you identify yourself with

and the categories that others identify with you. Society creates social categories such as middle aged or

college student, but they only become part of one's identity when one identifies with them or others

identify you in these categories. For example, you may think of yourself as short, but others may classify

you as being of average height. Many young people in their late teens and early twenties identify with

the category college student, but a growing number of people in their thirties, forties, and even older are

also returning to school and identifying with this category. The many social categories that exist can be

divided into two types: primary and secondary identities (Loden & Rosener, 1991; Ting Toomey, 1999).

Primary identities are those that have the most consistent and enduring impact on our lives, such as

race, gender, and nationality. Secondary identities, such as college major, occupation, and marital status,

are more fluid and more dependent on situation.

To help define the term identity, let's examine its essential characteristics. The first characteristic is that

identities exist at the individual and the societal levels. Jake Harwood (2006) explains this concept: "At

the individual (personal identity) level, we are concerned with our difference from other individuals, and

the things that make us unique as people. At the collective (social identity) level, we are concerned with

our group's differences from other groups, and the things that make our group unique" (pp. 81-85). For

example, if you are athletic and you are thinking about your athleticism in relation to others who are

more or less athletic than you are, you are focusing on one aspect of your individual identity. If you are

thinking about the social role of "athletes" in society, then you are focusing on a different aspect of your

social identity.

We should note that identities are not necessarily only individual or social; they can be both, depending

on the situation. How is this contradiction possible? Let's look at an example. Many of you are U.S.

Americans, and your national identity is part of your social identity. Because you are surrounded by

others from the United States, you may not be conscious of this as being part of your individual identity.

But if you travel abroad, your national identity becomes part of your individual identity because this

significant characteristic differentiates you from others. A second important aspect of identity is that it is

both fixed and dynamic. Again, this seems like a contradiction. If you think about it, however, you will

realize that certain aspects of our identities, although stable to some extent, actually do change over

time. For instance, a person may be born male, but as he grows from an infant to a boy to a teenager to

a young man to a middle-aged man and then to an old man, the meanings of his male identity change.

He is still a male and still identifies as a male, but what it means to be male alters as he ages, and social

expectations change regarding what a boy or a man should be (Kimmel, 2005). A third characteristic of

identity is that individual and social identities are created through interaction with others. The

relationships, experiences, and communication interactions we share with others shape how we see

ourselves. For example, people who travel abroad and then return home may experience stress, but they

also experience growth and change – and communication with those they meet as they travel plays a key

role in both (Martin & Harrell, 1996).

A fourth consideration is that identities need to be understood in relation to historical, social, and

cultural environments. The meaning of any identity is tied to how it has been viewed historically and

how people with that identity are situated in a given culture and society (Hecht et al., 2003; Johnson,

2001). For instance, throughout history, we have had varied notions of what it means to be female (Bock,

1989). For example, Harriet Tubman, who led many slaves to freedom, and Susan B. Anthony, who

fought for women's right to vote in the nineteenth century, were significant exceptions to their racial and

gender identities. In their times and for much of history, women have been perceived as intellectually

inferior, physically delicate, or morally weak when compared to men. African Americans were also seen

as unable to be leaders. Because of these beliefs, in many cultures women and African Americans were

denied voting and property rights. Thus, a hierarchy exists across cultures in which some identities are

preferentially treated over other identities. You can probably think of other examples in which

preferential treatment was given or denied based on race, sexuality, religion, social class, or age (Allen,

2004). In sum, identity is key to understanding communication, and communication is key to

understanding identity. As Abrams et al. (2002, p. 237) have stated, "identity and communication are

mutually reinforcing”

The Individual and Identity 2.3 Clarify how reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-fulfilling

prophecies, and self-concept contribute to identity development.

Although it can be tempting to boil a person's identity down to one word -say, nerd, jock, or sorority girl –

in reality, everyone is more complex than that. If you had to pick only one word to describe yourself and

you had to use it in every situation -personal and professional -what word would you choose? For most

people this task is impossible, for we all see ourselves as multidimensional, complex, and unique. People

in the United States, especially, are invested in the notion that they are unique. Iwins often go to great

lengths to assure people that they are not the same. Perhaps the most famous example of this is the

Olsen twins, Mary-Kate and Ashley. Mary-Kate dyed her hair dark so she would look less like her sister,

and when the sisters received a star on Hollywood's Walk of Fame, they requested that they be given

separate stars (a request that was denied). Like almost everyone, they recognize and value their

uniqueness – and they would like others to do so as well. How is it possible that people who are as much

alike as twins can still have distinct identities? It is possible because of the ways in which identities are

created and how these identities are "performed" in daily life.

The Individual, Identity, and Society 2.4 Identify examples of racial, national, ethnic, gender, sexual, age,

social class, disability, and religious identities.

Library The development of individual identities is influenced by societal forces. Therefore, you cannot

understand yourself or others without understanding how society constructs or defines characteristics

such as gender, sexuality, race, religion, social class, and nationality. For example, as a child, you were

probably told (some of) the differences between boys and girls. Some messages came from your

parents, such as how boys' and girls' clothing differs or how girls should behave as compared with boys.

Other messages came from your schoolmates, who may have told you that "they" (either boys or girls)

had "cooties." You may also have picked up messages about gender differences, or about any of the

identity categories mentioned, from television or other media. By combining messages from these

various sources, you began to construct images of what is considered normal for each identity category.

Communication scholars are particularly interested in how identities are communicated, and created,

through communication. For example, in his work focusing on communication interactions, Donal

Carbaugh (2007) is particularly interested in studying intercultural encounters, and he focuses on how

communication interaction reveals insights into cultural identities.

When people enact identities that are contrary to social expectations, they may be pressured to change

their performance. Thus, boys and girls who do not perform their gender identities in ways prescribed by

society might be called "sissies" or "tomboys." There are some Jewish people who eat shrimp and some

Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) who drink coffee, but they may not do so when around other people.

Those who do not conform to expected social communication or performance patterns may become

victims of threats, name calling, violence, and even murder (Sloop, 2004). These aggressive responses

are meant to ensure that everyone behaves in ways that clearly communicate appropriate identity

categories. For example, after a lengthy lawsuit, Shannon Faulkner became the first woman to enroll at

the Citadel, South Carolina's formerly all-male military college. During the time that she attended the

school, she received death threats and had to be accompanied by federal marshals (Bennett-Haigney,

1995). Thus, some groups in society have strong feelings regarding how identities should be performed,

and they may act to ensure that identities are performed according to societal expectations. In this

section of the chapter, we will look at a range of primary identity categories. Note that each is a product

of both individual and societal forces. Thus, whatever you think your individual identity might be, you

have to negotiate that identity within the larger society and the meanings society ascribes to it.

Ethics and Identity 2.5 Discuss three ethical considerations for communicating in a sensitive manner to

and about others' identities.

As you are probably aware, a person's sense of identity is central to how they function in the world.

Moreover, because identities derive their meanings from society, every identity comes with values

attached to it. The ways we communicate may reflect these values. If you wish to be sensitive to other

people's identities, you should be aware of at least three key ethical issues that can impact your

communication with others. One issue you might consider is how you communicate with people whose

identities are more, or less, valued. What do we mean by more or less valued? You probably already

know. In the United States, for example, which of the following identities is more highly valued: White or

multiracial? Male or female? Lawyer or school bus driver? Still, these rankings are not necessarily

consistent across cultures. In Denmark, for example, work identities do not follow the same hierarchical

pattern as those in the United States (Mikkelsen & Einarsen, 2001). Thus, Danes are more likely to view

street sweepers and doctors as social equals because they don't place as high a value on the medical

profession nor as low a value on service jobs as many U.S. Americans do. In the United States, in

contrast, many service workers complain that most of the people they serve either ignore them or treat

them rudely even with contempt. Consequently, you might ask yourself, "Do I communicate more

politely and respectfully with high-versus low-status people?" If you find yourself exhibiting more respect

when you communicate with your boss than you do with the employees you manage, then you might

want to consider the impact of your communication on your subordinates' identities.

The second ethical point to reflect on involves language that denigrates or puts down others based on

their identities. Such language debases their humanity and shuts down open communication. Examples

of unethical communication and behavior related to identity occur if men yell sexual slurs at women on

the street, or straight people harass individuals they believe are gay, or when White people are

disrespectful to people of color. Although you probably don't engage in such obvious insults to people's

identities, do you denigrate them in other, more subtle ways? For example, have you ever referred to

someone as "just a homemaker" or "only a dental assistant"?

Skills for Communicating about Identities 2.6 Explain three ways to communicate more effectively about


Related to our discussion about ethical issues, we offer three guidelines for communicating more

effectively about identities. The first guideline concerns the self-fulfilling prophecy we discussed

previously: How you communicate to someone and about someone can influence how they perform

their identity or how it develops. If a parent continually communicates with the child as if she were

irresponsible, then the child is likely to act irresponsibly. To communicate effectively, be aware of the

ways you create self-fulfilling prophecies through your own communication. Second, there are many

ways to perform a particular identity. You can improve your ability to communicate if you are tolerant of

the many variations. For example, even if you believe that "real men" should act in certain ways, you are

likely to communicate more effectively if you do not impose your beliefs on others. For example, you

should not assume that because someone is male, he enjoys watching football, baseball, and other

sports; wants to get married and have children; or eats only meat and potatoes. If you do, you are likely

to communicate with some men in ways they will find less interesting than you intend. Third, remember

that people change over time. If you have been out of touch with friends for a period of time, when you

encounter them again you may find that they have embraced new identities. Sometimes people change

religious identities, or sometimes they change occupations. You can increase your communication

effectiveness if you recognize that people change and that their new identities may be unfamiliar to you.

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