Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Describe how research findings may be important for advanced nursing policies, practice, theories, and subsequent research. Explain the implications for clinical practice of the evi | Wridemy

Describe how research findings may be important for advanced nursing policies, practice, theories, and subsequent research. Explain the implications for clinical practice of the evi


  • Describe how research findings may be important for advanced nursing policies, practice, theories, and subsequent research.
  • Explain the implications for clinical practice of the evidence-based research of your selected PICO question. (relate to the attachement for info gathered on prervious research done by you for this PICO ?)

Submission Instructions:

formatted and cited in current APA style 7 ed  with support from at least 5 academic sources which need to be journal articles or books from 2019 up to now. NO WEBSITES allowed for reference entry. Include doi, page numbers, etc. Plagiarism must be less than 10%.


Evidence-Based Research Methods

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Evidence-Based Research Methods

In conducting an evidence-based research study for the selected PICO question— “In African American males aged 18-30, how effective is the utilization of mindfulness meditation compared to traditional pharmacological treatments in managing symptoms of PTSD?”—various databases were consulted to collect the most relevant and high-quality information available. The databases searched include PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and PsychINFO (Sun et al., 2022). Each database offers unique strengths: PubMed for its focus on life sciences and biomedical papers; Scopus for its comprehensive coverage of scientific, technical, medical, and social science research; Google Scholar for its extensive but non-specific coverage; CINAHL for nursing and allied health literature; and PsychINFO for its specialization in psychology and behavioral sciences.

Search terms were meticulously chosen to maximize the relevance of the results. Keywords such as "African American males," "PTSD," "mindfulness meditation," and "pharmacological treatments" were utilized both singularly and in combination, employing Boolean operators like AND and OR to refine the search (Dong et al., 2023). The search was initially broad to capture a comprehensive body of evidence. Then, it was fine-tuned through inclusion and exclusion criteria to ensure specificity to the research question.

Inclusion criteria

The inclusion criteria were constructed to ensure that the studies collected were directly pertinent to the research question. First, only peer-reviewed articles published in the last ten years were considered to ensure the most current and rigorously vetted information. Second, the studies had to focus explicitly on African-American males aged 18-30, aligning with the patient population specified in the PICO question. Third, the research had to concentrate either on mindfulness meditation or pharmacological treatments for PTSD (Possemato et al., 2022). Lastly, studies had to offer quantitative data comparing the efficacy of these treatments on PTSD symptoms.

Exclusion criteria

The exclusion criteria were also evident. Studies that did not offer a direct comparison between mindfulness meditation and traditional pharmacological treatments were ruled out, as the research aims to draw distinctions between these two interventions. Research focusing on populations other than African-American males aged 18-30 was excluded to maintain demographic specificity (Grupe et al., 2021). Also, articles published in non-peer-reviewed journals or those over ten years old were eliminated to maintain the research's scientific rigor and contemporary relevance.

The careful selection of databases, coupled with well-thought-out inclusion and exclusion criteria, ensured the collation of the most relevant and reliable body of evidence. This meticulous approach aligns with the advanced practice psychiatric nurses (PMHNPs) role in integrating the best available evidence into patient care (Sun et al., 2022). This evidence base will inform the comparison between mindfulness meditation and pharmacological treatments in managing PTSD symptoms among African American males aged 18-30, providing PMHNPs with valuable insights for more culturally sensitive and patient-centered care (Goldberg et al., 2020). This effort not only enhances healthcare delivery but also influences future research directions and healthcare policies aimed at this vulnerable demographic. Therefore, the chosen PICO question and the accompanying research methods serve as a significant contribution to evidence-based psychiatric care.


The meticulous selection of databases and the strategic application of inclusion and exclusion criteria have been instrumental in gathering robust, evidence-based research for the selected PICO question. This comprehensive approach ensures that the research will offer valuable insights into the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation versus traditional pharmacological treatments for managing PTSD in African-American males aged 18-30. The evidence gathered holds the potential to inform and transform practice among psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners, offering more patient-centered, culturally sensitive, and effective treatment options for this vulnerable demographic.


Dong, S., Campbell, A., Shadden, P., & Massie, J. D. (2023). Racial identity and mindfulness as predictors of Posttraumatic Growth in Black Adults Experiencing Race-Based Trauma.  International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, pp. 1–19.

Goldberg, S. B., Riordan, K. M., Sun, S., Kearney, D. J., & Simpson, T. L. (2020). Efficacy and acceptability of mindfulness-based interventions for military veterans: A systematic review and meta-analysis.  Journal of psychosomatic researchp. 138, 110232.

Grupe, D. W., McGehee, C., Smith, C., Francis, A. D., Mumford, J. A., & Davidson, R. J. (2021). Mindfulness training reduces PTSD symptoms and improves stress-related health outcomes in police officers.  Journal of police and criminal psychologypp. 36, 72–85.

Possemato, K., Bergen-Cico, D., Buckheit, K., Ramon, A., McKenzie, S., Smith, A. R., … & Pigeon, W. R. (2022). Randomized Clinical Trial of Brief Primary Care–Based Mindfulness Training Versus a Psychoeducational Group for Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.  The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry84(1), 44829.

Sun, S., Guy, A. A., Zelaya, D. G., & Operario, D. (2022). Mindfulness for reducing minority stress and promoting health among sexual minority men: Uncovering intervention principles and techniques.  Mindfulness13(10), 2473-2487.



Evaluating Mindfulness Meditation in PTSD Care for African American Males

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Evaluating Mindfulness Meditation in PTSD Care for African American Males

My PICO question reads as follow: In African American males aged 18-30, how effective is the utilization of mindfulness meditation compared to traditional pharmacological treatments in managing symptoms of PTSD?


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric condition that arises as a consequence of individuals being exposed to very distressing and traumatic situations. Research conducted by Biggers et al. (2020) has shown that African American males in the United States, particularly those between the ages of 18 and 30, exhibit a greater prevalence of traumatic experiences. This gap may be explained by a variety of socioeconomic and environmental factors. This includes experiences with racial prejudice, acts of violence, and socioeconomic disparities.

Mindfulness meditation has garnered significant attention as a potential adjunctive or alternative therapeutic approach for various mental health disorders. This practice emphasizes the cultivation of present-moment awareness and wholehearted engagement, devoid of evaluative judgments. Consequently, it offers a non-pharmacological intervention that may be particularly appealing to individuals experiencing adverse effects from medication or harboring concerns regarding prolonged pharmaceutical utilization (Felsted, 2020). There is a need to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation in controlling PTSD symptoms, particularly when compared to the standard of care, which is conventional medication therapy. Given the particular problems and experiences of African-American men aged 18-30, the purpose of this PICO question is to determine whether mindfulness meditation may be an effective and realistic option in managing PTSD in this specific demographic.


The significance of this PICO question in relation to APN has great relevance, particularly within the dynamic field of psychiatric care in the United States. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) continues to be a significant issue, with a specific focus on the vulnerability of African-American males aged 18-30. This vulnerability may be attributed to a combination of socio-economic, racial, and environmental stresses. Pharmacological interventions are often used as the first course of action; however, they are accompanied by significant adverse reactions and the possibility of developing dependence (Schmitz et al., 2021). In the context of APN, prioritizing patient-centered care necessitates the careful consideration and assessment of alternative or supplementary treatment options that are congruent with the unique requirements and cultural intricacies of individual patients.

Mindfulness meditation, which emphasizes present-focused awareness without judgment, offers a therapeutic potential that resonates with holistic nursing principles (Powers et al., 2023). For APNs, understanding its effectiveness compared to traditional treatments provides a broader arsenal of interventions, empowering them to tailor treatment plans that are both evidence-based and culturally sensitive.

Additionally, APNs engage in a crucial role in patient advocacy, education, and healthcare policy. They may promote the inclusion of these therapies in standard care protocols by responding to this question, ensuring that African-American males with PTSD get the most thorough and specialized care possible (Davis et al., 2019). In conclusion, this PICO question highlights the need of robust evidence in alternative therapy modalities and affirms APNs' commitment to providing culturally competent, patient-centered care in psychiatric settings.


Exploring mindfulness meditation as an intervention for PTSD in African-American males aged 18-30 is essential for advanced practice nursing. By addressing the unique needs of this population and offering a non-pharmacological approach, this research inquiry can enhance patient care, strengthen evidence-based practice, and ultimately foster holistic well-being within a historically underserved community.


Biggers, A., Spears, C. A., Sanders, K., Ong, J., Sharp, L. K., & Gerber, B. S. (2020). Promoting mindfulness in African American communities.  Mindfulness11(10), 2274–2282.

Davis, L. L., Whetsell, C., Hamner, M. B., Carmody, J., Rothbaum, B. O., Allen, R. S., Bartolucci, A., Southwick, S. M., & Bremner, J. D. (2019). A multisite randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.  Psychiatric Research and Clinical Practice1(2), 39–48.

Felsted, K. F. (2020). Mindfulness, stress, and aging.  Clinics in Geriatric Medicine36(4), 685-696.

Powers, A., Lathan, E. C., Dixon, H. D., Mekawi, Y., Hinrichs, R., Carter, S., Bradley, B., & Kaslow, N. J. (2023). Primary care-based mindfulness intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms among black adults: A pilot feasibility and acceptability randomized controlled trial.  Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy15(5), 858-867.

Schmitz, J. C., Prenoveau, J. M., Papadakis, A. A., Johnson, A. J., Lating, J. M., Mendelson, T., & Dariotis, J. K. (2021). Mindfulness and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity in urban African-American high school students.  Psychiatric Quarterly92(2021), 85-99.



PRISMA Literature Flow Diagram for PICO Question

Studies included in quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis) (n = 5)

Records excluded (n = 175)

Records screened (n = 225)

Records after duplicates removed (n =225)





Additional records identified through other sources (n =50)

Records identified through database searching (n = 200)

Full-text articles assessed for eligibility (n = 50)

Full-text articles excluded, with reasons (n = 40)

Studies included in qualitative synthesis (n = 50)

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